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Pacific Coastal and Marine Science Center

USGS Pacific Coral Reefs Website

Photo of coral reef.  

Molokaʻi

satellite image of the island of Moloka'i

Landsat satellite image from NASA

Overview

The Friendly Isle of Molokaʻi encompasses 673 sq km (260 sq mi), making it the fifth largest of the main eight Hawaiian Islands. The north and west coasts of the island have little coral growth due to impact from northwest swell. However, protected from the southern swell waves by the islands of Lānaʻi and Kahoʻolowe, the south shore of Molokaʻi boasts the longest continuous fringing reef of the U.S. and its holdings. Studies by scientists at the University of Hawaiʻi Coral Reef Assessment and Monitoring Program have shown that Molokaʻi has sites with the best coral coverage in the main eight Hawaiian Islands. Yet impacts from sediment run-off into the nearshore ecosystem have also caused areas of degredation of the south Molokaʻi reef.

Motivation

The USGS has used the south Molokaʻi reef as its test ground for developing benthic habitat mapping methods including remote sensing and underwater videography. Investigations into sedimentation along the south coast involve deployment of instrument packages to measure oceanographic conditions such as turbidity, currents, waves, temperature, and salinity. Recent work on Molokaʻi includes looking into the coral record to find clues to past sedimentation event.

The USGS has many cooperators on Molokaʻi including the U.S. Coral Reef Task Force (USCRTF)Hawaiian Local Action Strategy for Land-Based Pollution (HI-LAS/LBP), University of Hawai?i, University of Washington, University of California-Santa Cruz, Australian National University, and The Nature Conservancy.

Products

Divided by theme (Note: some products are listed multiple times as they cross multiple themes)

Mapping

Cochran, S.A., 2013, Aerial Photography Application, in Goodman, J.A., Purkis, S.J., and Phinn, S.T., eds., Coral reef remote sensing; A guide for mapping, monitoring and management; Chapter 2: New York, Springer, p. 29–49, ISBN 978-90-481-9291-5.

Gibbs, A.E., Cochran, S.A., and Tierney, P.W., 2013, Seafloor video footage and still frame-grabs from U.S. Geological Survey cruises in Hawaiian nearshore waters: U.S. Geological Survey Data Series 735, 11 p.

Rogers, J.S., Monismith, S.G., Feddersen, F., and Storlazzi, C.D., 2013, Hydrodynamics of spur and groove formations on a coral reef: Journal of Geophysical Research—Oceans, v. 118, p. 3,059–3,073, doi:10.1002/jgrc.20225.

Logan, J.B., Field, M.E, and Chavez, P.S., 2011, Bathymetry and selected views of the fringing coral reef, South Molokaʻi, Hawaiʻi, in Kataoka, M., ed., ESRI Map Book: Redlands, CA, ESRI Press, v., 26, p. 70–71.

U.S. Geological Survey, 2009, Science-based strategies for sustaining coral ecosystems: U.S. Geological Survey Fact Sheet 2009–3089, 4 p.

Barnhardt, W.A., Grossman, E.E., and Richmond, B.M., 2008, Antecedent substrate underlying the South Molokaʻi fringing reef and implications for reef development, in Field, M.E., Cochran, S.A., Logan, J.B., and Storlazzi, C.D., eds., The coral reef of south Molokaʻi, Hawaiʻi; Portrait of a sediment-threatened fringing reef, U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report, 2007–5101, p. 13–15.

Brown, E.K., Jokiel, P.L., Rodgers, K., Smith, W.R., and Roberts, L.M., 2008, The status of the reefs along south Molokaʻi; Five years of monitoring, in Field, M.E., Cochran, S.A., Logan, J.B., and Storlazzi, C.D., eds., The coral reef of south Molokaʻi, Hawaiʻi; Portrait of a sediment-threatened fringing reef, U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report, 2007–5101, p. 51–58.

Cochran, S.A., 2008, Benthic habitat maps of the south Molokaʻi coral reef, in Field, M.E., Cochran, S.A., Logan, J.B., and Storlazzi, C.D., eds., The coral reef of south Molokaʻi, Hawaiʻi; Portrait of a sediment-threatened fringing reef, U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report, 2007–5101, p. 77–97.

D'Iorio, M.M., 2008, Invasive mangroves and coastal change on Molokaʻi, in Field, M.E., Cochran, S.A., Logan, J.B., and Storlazzi, C.D., eds., The coral reef of south Molokaʻi, Hawaiʻi; Portrait of a sediment-threatened fringing reef, U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report, 2007–5101, p. 129–134.

Engels, M.S., and Fletcher, C.H., 2008, Molokaʻi - Two different types of reef growth in the past 8,000 years, in Field, M.E., Cochran, S.A., Logan, J.B., and Storlazzi, C.D., eds., The coral reef of south Molokaʻi, Hawaiʻi; Portrait of a sediment-threatened fringing reef, U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report, 2007–5101, p. 37–40.

Field, M.E., Cochran, S.A., Logan, J.B., and Storlazzi, C.D., 2008, The south Molokaʻi reef; Origin, history and status, in Field, M.E., Cochran, S.A., Logan, J.B., and Storlazzi, C.D., eds., The coral reef of south Molokaʻi, Hawaiʻi; Portrait of a sediment-threatened fringing reef, U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report, 2007–5101, p. 3–10.

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Field, M.E., Cochran, S.A., Logan, J.B., and Storlazzi, C.D., eds., 2008, The coral reef of south Molokaʻi, Hawaiʻi; Portrait of a sediment-threatened reef, U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2007–5101, 180 p.

Field, M.E., Logan, J.B., Chavez, P.S. Jr., Storlazzi, C.D., and Cochran, S.A., 2008, Views of the south Molokaʻi watershed-to-reef system, in Field, M.E., Cochran, S.A., Logan, J.B., and Storlazzi, C.D., eds., The coral reef of south Molokaʻi, Hawaiʻi; Portrait of a sediment-threatened fringing reef, U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report, 2007–5101, p. 17–31.

Jokiel, P.L., E.K., Brown, Rogers, S.K., and Smith, W.R., 2008, Reef corals and the coral reefs of south Molokaʻi, in Field, M.E., Cochran, S.A., Logan, J.B., and Storlazzi, C.D., eds., The coral reef of south Molokaʻi, Hawaiʻi; Portrait of a sediment-threatened fringing reef, U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report, 2007–5101, p. 43–50.

Storlazzi, C.D., Logan, J.B., and Field, M.E, 2008, Shape of the south Molokaʻi fringing reef; trends and variation, in Field, M.E., Cochran, S.A., Logan, J.B., and Storlazzi, C.D., eds., The coral reef of south Molokaʻi, Hawaiʻi; Portrait of a sediment-threatened fringing reef, U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report, 2007–5101, p. 33–36.

D'Iorio, M., Jupiter, S.D., Cochran, S.A., and Potts, D.C., 2007, Optimizing remote sensing and GIS tools for mapping and managing the distribution of an invasive mangrove (Rhizophora mangle) on south Molokai, Hawaii: Marine Geodesy, v. 30, no. 1–2, p. 125–144, doi:10.1080/01490410701296663.

Barnhardt, W.A., Richmond, B.M., Grossman, E.E., and Hart, P., 2005, Possible modes of coral-reef development at Molokai, Hawaii, inferred from seismic-reflection profiling: Geo-Marine Letters, v. 25, no. 5, p. 315–323, doi:10.1007/s00367-005-0214-5.

Cochran-Marquez, S.A., 2005, Molokaʻi benthic habitat mapping: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2005–1070, 18 p.

Gibbs, A.E., Grossman, E.E., and Richmond, B.M., 2005, Summary and preliminary interpretations of USGS cruise A-2-02-HW; Underwater video surveys collected off of Oʻahu, Molokai, and Maui, Hawaii, June-July 2002: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2005–1244, 57 p.

Logan, J.B., Field, M.E., and Chavez, P.S., 2005, Bathymetry and selected views of the fringing coral reef, south Molokaʻi, Hawaiʻi: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Map 2886.

Rodgers, K.S., Jokiel, P.L., Smith, W.R., Farrell, F., and Uchino, K., 2005, Biological survey in support of the USGS turbidity and sediment baseline survey on south Molokaʻi reef flat, April 2005: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2005–1361, 35 p.

Brown, E.K., Cox, E., Jokiel, P.L., Rogers, S.K., Smith, W.R., Tissot, B., Coles, S.L., and Hultquist, J., 2004, Development of benthic sampling methods for the Coral Reef Assessment and Monitoring Program (CRAMP) in Hawaiʻi: Pacific Science, v. 58, no. 2, p. 145–158, doi:10.1353/psc.2004.0013.

Jokiel, P.L., Brown, E.K., Friedlander, A., Rodgers, S.K., and Smith, W.R., 2004, Hawaiʻi Coral Reef Assessment and Monitoring Program; Spatial patterns and temporal dynamics in reef coral communities: Pacific Science, v. 58, no. 2, p. 159–174, doi:10.1353/psc.2004.0018.

Storlazzi, C.D., Logan, J.B., and Field, M.E., 2003, Quantitative morphology of a fringing reef from high-resolution laser bathymetry: Southern Molokai, Hawaii: Geological Society of America Bulletin, v. 115, no. 11, p. 1,344–1,355, doi:10.1130/B25200.1.

Cochran, S.A., Roberts, L.M., and Evans, K.R., 2002, Molokaʻi fieldtrip guidebook; Selected aspects of the geology, geography, and coral reefs of Molokaʻi: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 02–158, 62 p.

Field, M.E., Chavez, P.S., Evans, K.R., and Cochran, S.A., 2001, New mapping techniques help assess the health of Hawaiʻi's coral reefs: U.S. Geological Survey Fact Sheet 084–01, 4 p.

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Circulation and sediment dynamics

Ferrario, F., Beck, M.W., Storlazzi, C.D., Micheli, F., Shepard, C.C., and Airoldi, L., 2014, The effectiveness of coral reefs for coastal hazard risk reduction and adaptation: Nature Communications, 5:3794, doi:10.1038/ncomms4794. [download PDF]

Grady, A.E., Moore, L.J., Storlazzi, C.D., Elias, E., and Reidenbach, M.A., 2013, The influence of sea level rise and changes in fringing reef morphology on gradients in alongshore sediment transport: Geophysical Research Letters, v. 40, i. 12, p. 3096–3101, doi:10.1002/grl.50577.

Rogers, J.S., Monismith, S.G., Feddersen, F., and Storlazzi, C.D., 2013, Hydrodynamics of spur and groove formations on a coral reef: Journal of Geophysical Research - Oceans, v. 118, p. 1–15, doi:10.1002/jgrc.20225.

Field, M.E., Chezar, H., and Storlazzi, C.D., 2012, SedPods—A low-cost coral proxy for measuring net sedimentation: Coral Reefs, v. 32, p. 155–159, doi:10.1007/s00338-012-0953-5.

Stock, J.D., Cochran, S.A., Field, M.E, Jacobi, J.D., and Tribble, G., 2011, From ridge to reef--Linking erosion and changing watersheds to impacts on coral reef ecosystems in Hawaiʻi and the Pacific Ocean: U.S. Geological Survey Fact Sheet 2011–3049, 4 p.

Storlazzi, C.D., Field, M.E, and Bothner, M.H., 2011, The use (and misuse) of sediment traps in coral reef environments; Theory, observations, and suggested protocols: Coral Reefs, v. 30, no. 1, p. 23–38, doi:10.1007/s00338-010-0705-3.

Storlazzi, C.D., Presto, M.K., and Brown, E.K., 2011, Coastal circulation and water column properties off Kalaupapa National Historical Park, Molokaʻi, Hawaiʻi, 2008–2010: U.S. Geological Survey Open File Report 2011–1154, 33 p.

Prouty, N.G., Field, M.E., Stock, J.D., Jupiter, S.D., and McCulloch, M.T., 2010, Coral Ba/Ca records of sediment input to the fringing reef of the south shore of Moloka'i, Hawaiʻi, over the last several decades: Marine Pollution Bulletin, v. 60(10), p. 1,822–1,835, doi:10.1016/j.marpolbul.2010.05.024.

Takesue, R.K., 2010, Terrigenous sediment provenance from geochemical tracers, south Molokai reef flat, Hawaii: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2010–1155, 17 p.

U.S. Geological Survey, 2009, Science-based strategies for sustaining coral ecosystems: U.S. Geological Survey Fact Sheet 2009–3089, 4 p.

Bothner, M.H., Reynolds, R.L., Casso, M.A., Storlazzi, C.D., and Field, M.E., 2008, Sediment mobility along Molokaʻi's fringing coral reef; Evidence from sediment traps, in Field, M.E., Cochran, S.A., Logan, J.B., and Storlazzi, C.D., eds., The coral reef of south Molokaʻi, Hawaiʻi; Portrait of a sediment-threatened fringing reef: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2007–5101, p. 147–152.

Carr, R.S., and Nipper, M., 2008, Measurements of toxicity in reef sediment, in Field, M.E., Cochran, S.A., Logan, J.B., and Storlazzi, C.D., eds., The coral reef of south Molokaʻi, Hawaiʻi; Portrait of a sediment-threatened fringing reef: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2007–5101, p. 145–146.

Calhoun, R.S., and Field, M.E., 2008, Sand composition and transport history on a fringing coral reef, Molokaʻi, Hawaiʻi: Journal of Coastal Resources, v. 24, p. 1,151–1,160.

Engels, M.S., Fletcher, C.H., Field, M.E., Conger, C.L., and Bochicchio, C., 2008, Demise of reef-flat carbonate accumulation with late Holocene sea-level fall; evidence from Molokai Hawaii: Coral Reefs, v. 27, no. 4, p. 991–996, doi:10.1007/s00338-008-0410-7.

Field, M.E., Bothner, M.H., Chavez, P.S., Cochran, S.A., Jokiel, P.L., Ogston, A.S., Presto, M.K., and Storlazzi, C.D., 2008, The effects of a Kona storm on the Molokaʻi reef; November and December 2001, in Field, M.E., Cochran, S.A., Logan, J.B., and Storlazzi, C.D., eds., The coral reef of south Molokaʻi, Hawaiʻi; Portrait of a sediment-threatened fringing reef: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2007–5101, p. 159–164.

Field, M.E., Calhoun, R.S., Storlazzi, C.D., Logan, J.B., and Cochran, S.A., 2008, Sediment on the Molokaʻi reef, in Field, M.E., Cochran, S.A., Logan, J.B., and Storlazzi, C.D., eds., The coral reef of south Molokaʻi, Hawaiʻi; Portrait of a sediment-threatened fringing reef: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2007–5101, p. 137–144.

Field, M.E., Cochran, S.A., Logan, J.B., and Storlazzi, C.D., eds., 2008, The coral reef of south Molokaʻi, Hawaiʻi; Portrait of a sediment-threatened reef: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2007–5101, 180 p.

Fletcher, C.H., Bochicchio, C., Conger, C.L., Engels, M.S., Feirstein, E.J., Frazer, L.N., Glenn, C.R., Grigg, R.W., Grossman, E.E., Harney, J.N., Isoun, E., Murray-Wallace, C.V., Rooney, J.J., Rubin, K.H., Sherman, C.E., and Vitousek, S., 2008, Geology of Hawaiʻi reefs, in Riegl, B., and Dodge, R., eds., Coral Reefs of the U.S.A., Springer-Verlag, p. 435–488.

Ogston, A.S., Presto, M.K., Storlazzi, C.D., and Field, M.E., 2008, Causes of turbidity on the Molokaʻi reef flat and sediment transport patterns, in Field, M.E., Cochran, S.A., Logan, J.B., and Storlazzi, C.D., eds., The coral reef of south Molokaʻi, Hawaiʻi; Portrait of a sediment-threatened fringing reef: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2007–5101, p. 153–158.

Piniak, G.A., and Storlazzi, C.D., 2008, Diurnal variability in turbidity and coral fluorescence on a fringing reef flat; Southern Molokai, Hawaii: Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, v. 77, i.1, p. 56–64, doi:10.1016/j.ecss.2007.08.023.

Roberts, L.M., and Field, M.E., 2008, People, land, and the reefs of south Molokaʻi, in Field, M.E., Cochran, S.A., Logan, J.B., and Storlazzi, C.D., eds., The coral reef of south Molokaʻi, Hawaiʻi; Portrait of a sediment-threatened fringing reef: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2007–5101, p. 123–128.

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Storlazzi, C.D., Field, M.E., Brown, E.K., and Jokiel, P.L., 2008, Waves and their impact on reef growth, in Field, M.E., Cochran, S.A., Logan, J.B., and Storlazzi, C.D., eds., The coral reef of south Molokaʻi, Hawaiʻi; Portrait of a sediment-threatened fringing reef: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2007–5101, p. 105–108.

Storlazzi, C.D., Presto, M.K., Logan, J.B., and Field, M.E., 2008, Coastal circulation and sediment dynamics in Hanalei Bay, Kauaʻi; Part IV -- Measurements of waves, currents, temperature, salinity, and turbidity, June-September 2006: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2008–1295, 29 p.

Bothner, M.H., Reynolds, R.L., Casso, M.A., Storlazzi, C.D., and Field, M.E., 2006, Quantity, composition and source of sediment collected in sediment traps along the fringing coral reef off Molokaʻi, Hawaiʻi: Marine Pollution Bulletin, v. 52, no. 9, p. 1,034–1,047, doi:10.1016/j.marpolbul.2006.01.008.

Presto, M.K., Ogston, A.S., Storlazzi, C.D., and Field, M.E., 2006, Temporal and spatial variability in the flow and dispersal of suspended-sediment on a fringing reef flat, Molokai, Hawaii: Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, v. 67, i. 1–2, p. 67–81, doi:10.1016/j.ecss.2005.10.015.

Stamski, R.E., and Field, M.E., 2006, Characterization of sediment trapped by macroalgae on a Hawaiian reef flat: Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, v. 66, i. 1–2, p. 211–216, doi:10.1016/j.ecss.2005.08.010.

Field, M.E., 2005, Living with change; Response of the seafloor to natural events, in Barnes, P.W., and Thomas, J.P., eds., Benthic habitats and the effects of fishing; American Fisheries Society Symposium 41, Proceedings of Symposium on effects of fishing activities on benthic habitats; Linking geology, biology, socioeconomics, and management, Tampa, FL, 12–14 November 2002: Bethesda, MD, American Fisheries Society, p. 215–218.

Storlazzi, C.D., Brown, E.K., Field, M.E., Rodgers, K., and Jokiel, P.L., 2005, A model for wave control on coral breakage and species distribution in the Hawaiian Islands: Coral Reefs, v. 24, no. 1, p. 43–55, doi:10.1007/s00338-004-0430-x.

Engels, M.S., Fletcher, C.H., Field, M.E., Storlazzi, C.D., Grossman, E.E., Rooney, J.J.B., Conger, C.L., and Glenn, C., 2004, Holocene reef accretion: Southwest Molokai, Hawaii, U.S.A.: Journal of Sedimentary Research, v. 74, no. 2, p. 255–269, doi:10.1306/073003740255.

Ogston, A.S., Storlazzi, C.D., Field, M.E., and Presto, M.K., 2004, Sediment resuspension and transport patterns on a fringing reef flat, Molokai, Hawaii: Coral Reefs, v. 23, no. 4, p. 559–569, doi:10.1007/s00338-004-0415-9.

Rooney, J., Fletcher, C., Grossman, E., Engels, M., and Field, M., 2004, El Niño influence on Holocene reef accretion in Hawaiʻi: Pacific Science, v. 58, no. 2, p. 305–324, doi:10.1353/psc.2004.0022.

Storlazzi, C.D., Ogston, A.S., Bothner, M.H., Field, M.E., and Presto, M.K., 2004, Wave- and tidally-driven flow and sediment flux across a fringing coral reef: Southern Molokai, Hawaii: Continental Shelf Research, v. 24(12), p. 1,397–1,419, doi:10.1016/j.csr.2004.02.010.

Carr, R.S., and Nipper, M., 2003, Final report on toxicity testing of sediments from Molokaʻi and Maui, Hawaiʻi: USGS Marine Ecotoxicology Research Station, Texas A&M University—Corpus Christi, Center for Coastal Studies. Report number TAMU-CC-0302-CCS, 17 p.

Storlazzi, C.D., Logan, J.B., and Field, M.E., 2003, Quantitative morphology of a fringing reef from high-resolution laser bathymetry: Southern Molokai, Hawaii: Geological Society of America Bulletin, v. 115, no. 11, p. 1,344–1,355, doi:10.1130/B25200.1.

Calhoun, R.S., and Field, M.E., 2002, Beach and reef-flat sediments along the south shore of Molokaʻi, Hawaiʻi: Carbonate Beaches 2000, Proceedings of the First International Symposium on Carbonate Sand Beaches, held in Key Largo, Florida, on December 5–8, 2000, Proceedings, American Society of Civil Engineers, p. 163–171.

Storlazzi, C.D., Field, M.E., Dykes, J.D., Jokiel, P.L., and Brown, E.K., 2002, Wave control on reef morphology and coral distribution, Molokaʻi, Hawaiʻi: Waves 2001, Ocean Wave Measurement and Analysis, Fourth International Symposium, San Francisco, CA, Proceedings, 2–6 September 2001, American Society of Civil Engineers, p. 784–793.

Carr, R.S., and Nipper, M., 2001, Toxicity testing of sediments from Molokai, Hawaii. Final report submitted to US Geological Survey, Geologic Division, Coastal and Marine Geology Program.

Roberts, L.M., 2001, Historical land use, coastal change, and sedimentation on south Molokaʻi reefs, in Saxena, N.K., ed., Recent advances in marine science and technology, 2000, PACON International, Honolulu, HI, p. 167–176.

Climate change

Ferrario, F., Beck, M.W., Storlazzi, C.D., Micheli, F., Shepard, C.C., and Airoldi, L., 2014, The effectiveness of coral reefs for coastal hazard risk reduction and adaptation: Nature Communications, 5:3794, doi:10.1038/ncomms4794 [download PDF]

Grady, A.E., Moore, L.J., Storlazzi, C.D., Elias, E., and Reidenbach, M.A., 2013, The influence of sea level rise and changes in fringing reef morphology on gradients in alongshore sediment transport: Geophysical Research Letters, v. 40, i. 12, p. 3,096–3,101, doi:10.1002/grl.50577.

Field, M.E, Ogston, A.S., and Storlazzi, C.D., 2011, Rising sea level may cause decline of fringing coral reefs: Eos Transactions AGU, v. 92, no. 33, p. 273–280, doi:10.1029/2011EO330001.

Storlazzi, C.D., Elias, E., Field, M.E, and Presto, M.K., 2011, Numerical modeling of the impact of sea-level rise on fringing coral reef hydrodynamics and sediment transport: Coral Reefs, v. 30, Supplement 1, p. 83–96, doi:10.1007/s00338-011-0723-9.

Ogston, A.S., and Field, M.E., 2010, Predictions of turbidity due to enhanced sediment resuspension resulting from sea-level rise on a fringing coral reef; evidence from Molokai, Hawaii: Journal of Coastal Research, v. 26, i. 6, p. 1,027–1,037, doi:10.2112/JCOASTRES-D-09-00064.1.

Prouty, N.G., Field, M.E., Jupiter, S.D., and McCulloch, M.T., 2009, Coral proxy record for decadal scale reduction in base flow from Moloka'i, Hawaii: Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems, v. 10, Q12018, doi:10.1029/2009GC002714.

U.S. Geological Survey, 2009, Science-based strategies for sustaining coral ecosystems: U.S. Geological Survey Fact Sheet 2009–3089, 4 p.

Field, M.E., Cochran, S.A., Logan, J.B., and Storlazzi, C.D., eds., 2008, The coral reef of south Molokaʻi, Hawaiʻi; Portrait of a sediment-threatened reef, U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report, 2007–5101, 180 p.

Grossman, E.E., 2008, Sea-level and its affects on reefs in Hawaiʻi, in Field, M.E., Cochran, S.A., Logan, J.B., and Storlazzi, C.D., eds., The coral reef of south Molokaʻi, Hawaiʻi; Portrait of a sediment-threatened fringing reef, U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report, 2007–5101, p. 101–104.

Grossman, E.E., Logan, J.B., Street, J., Paytan, A., and Chavez, P.S., 2008, Ground water and its influence on reef evolution, in Field, M.E., Cochran, S.A., Logan, J.B., and Storlazzi, C.D., eds., The coral reef of south Molokaʻi, Hawaiʻi; Portrait of a sediment-threatened fringing reef, U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report, 2007–5101, p. 111–116.

Yates, K.K., and Halley, R.B., 2006, CO32− concentration and pCO2 thresholds for calcification and dissolution on the Molokai reef flat, Hawaii: Biogeosciences, v. 3, 357–369, doi:10.5194/bg-3-357-2006.

Jokiel, P.L., 2004, Temperature stress and coral bleaching, in Rosenberg, E., and Loya, Y., eds., Coral Health and Disease, Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg, p. 401–425.

Jokiel, P.L., and Brown, E.K., 2004, Global warming, regional trends and inshore environmental conditions influence coral bleaching in Hawaii: Global Change Biology, v. 10, no. 10, p. 1,627–1,641, doi:10.1111/j.1365-2486.2004.00836.x.

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Future reefs

Ferrario, F., Beck, M.W., Storlazzi, C.D., Micheli, F., Shepard, C.C., and Airoldi, L., 2014, The effectiveness of coral reefs for coastal hazard risk reduction and adaptation: Nature Communications, 5:3794, doi:10.1038/ncomms4794 [download PDF]

U.S. Geological Survey, 2009, Science-based strategies for sustaining coral ecosystems: U.S. Geological Survey Fact Sheet 2009–3089, 4 p.

Field, M.E., Cochran, S.A., Logan, J.B., and Storlazzi, C.D., 2008, The Molokaʻi coral reef today, and alternatives for the future, in Field, M.E., Cochran, S.A., Logan, J.B., and Storlazzi, C.D., eds., The coral reef of south Molokaʻi, Hawaiʻi; Portrait of a sediment-threatened fringing reef, U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report, 2007–5101, p. 167–170.

Field, M.E., Cochran, S.A., Logan, J.B., and Storlazzi, C.D., eds., 2008, The coral reef of south Molokaʻi, Hawaiʻi; Portrait of a sediment-threatened reef, U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report, 2007–5101, 180 p.

Other selected works

Coral Reefs Provide Critical Coastal Protection

Coral Records of Sediment Input to the Fringing Reef of Molokaʻi, Hawaiʻi

View click-and-zoom panorama of Kaunakakai Wharf, Molokaʻi (1.4 Mb)

View click-and-zoom panorama of Kawela ahupuaʻa, Molokaʻi (1.9 Mb)

View movie of coral reef near Kamalō (11.3 Mb)

View movie of coral reef offshore from Kapuāiwa (King Kamehameha V) coconut grove (12.3 Mb)

View movie of coral reef near Pālāʻau (11.8 Mb)

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