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Pacific Coastal and Marine Science Center

USGS Pacific Coral Reefs Website

Photo of coral reef.  

Circulation and Sediment, Nutrient, Contaminant, and Larval Dynamics on Reefs

Wide-angle photograph of Pelekane Bay after a storm.

Photograph of large (6 m/20 ft high) waves resuspending terrestrial flood sediment on the coral reefs off Puʻukoholā Heiau National Historic Site and Kawaihae Harbor, Hawaiʻi. [larger version]

The Problem

Photograph shows a wave breaking, as it looks from underwater, over the reef.

Underwater photograph of waves breaking over the shallow fringing coral reef flat in Tumon Bay, Guam.

Terrigenous sediment run-off and deposition on coral reefs can significantly impact coral health by blocking light and inhibiting photosynthesis, directly smothering and abrading coral, and triggering increases in macro algae. The delivery of sediment and pollutants to reefs have increased globally as a response to human-induced changes to watersheds, as pointed out in the U.S. Commission on Ocean Policy. The Status of Coral Reefs of the World (2004) report states that sediment run-off is the major stressor to reefs in Hawaiʻi, Guam, and the Northern Mariana Islands, while the Coral Reefs of the USA (2008) and The State of Coral Reef Ecosystems of the United States and Pacific Freely Associated States (2008) reports recognize that sediment run-off is one of the most serious stressors affecting coral reefs not only in the Hawaiian and Mariana Islands, but also those off American Samoa, Puerto Rico, and in the U.S. Virgin Islands. Furthermore, it is the impact from local stressors such as terrestrial sediment, as compared to global climate change, that can be best rectified through local actions by Federal (including National Park Service, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, and National Marine Sanctuaries), State, and/or local land managers.

The dominant control on residence time of sediment, nutrient uptake, contaminant exposure, and larval dispersal in coral reef systems is the pattern of flow. Coral reefs are hydrodynamically rough, more than an order of magnitude greater than sandy sea floors. This roughness and the high geomorphic complexity of reefs cause currents to diverge around reef structures, resulting in high horizontal and vertical shear (flow going in different directions at different locations or depths). This can result in either the rapid transport of material in localized jets or the retention of material eddies that form in the lee of reefs; these zones of retention can either be beneficial (coral larval recruitment) or harmful (contaminants) to coral reef ecosystems. The high geomorphic and hydrodynamic complexity and diversity within and between reefs has limited our understanding of the nature of flow and the resulting magnitude and direction of transport of physical, chemical, and biologic material in these fragile ecosystems.

The Approach

Photograph of a bottom sampler tripod at rest on the shallow ocean floor.

A rotary sediment trap deployed in a channel on the reef flat off Puʻukoholā Heiau National Historic Site, Hawaiʻi, designed to collect samples of sediment being transported across the reef.

The overall objective of this research effort is to better understand how circulation and sediment processes impact coral reefs. Achievement of this objective requires an understanding of the physical parameters driving flow, transport pathways and durations, and coral reef ecosystem processes. The goals of this effort are to:

  1. determine the patterns of flow over coral reefs that result from different forcing mechanisms such as waves, currents, surface tides, internal tides and those driven by wind, large-scale ocean currents, etc.;
  2. compare retention times of sediment, nutrients, and contaminants over complex coral reef morphologies with those along more linear coral reef systems;
  3. identify the circulation pathways by which separated reefs are linked through larval or pollutant transport, and at determine over what time and space scales these pathways occur; and
  4. evaluate how these processes and linkages will be affected by predicted changes in climate, such as sea-level rise and changes in the frequency and intensity of storms.

The approach to these interdisciplinary studies will rely on a combination of field measurements and physics-based numerical monitoring. We use a wide range of tools to try to answer these questions, including: oceanographic instruments (for example, acoustic Doppler current profilers, wave/tide gauges, temperature sensors, salinity sensors, turbidity sensors, chemical sensors) mounted on the seabed or on moorings, water-column profilers with similar suites of sensors, time-lapse camera systems deployed on land or underwater, GPS-equipped Lagrangian surface drifters, simple and rotary sediment traps, coral and sediment cores, geophysical sub-bottom surveys, and physics-based numerical models.

Products

Journal Articles

Ferrario, F., Beck, M.W., Storlazzi, C.D., Micheli, F., Shepard, C.C., and Airoldi, L., 2014, The effectiveness of coral reefs for coastal hazard risk reduction and adaptation: Nature Communications, 5:3794, doi:10.1038/ncomms4794. [download PDF]

Ganguli, P.M., Swarzenski, P.W., Dulaiova, H., Glenn, C.R., and Flegal, A.R., 2014, Mercury dynamics in a coastal aquifer: Manualua Bay, Oʻahu, Hawaiʻi: Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, v. 140, p. 52–65, doi: 10.1016/j.ecss.2014.01.012.

Prouty, N.G., Storlazzi, C.D., McCutcheon, A.L., and Jenson, J.W., 2014, Historic impact of watershed change and sedimentation to reefs along western Guam: Coral Reefs, doi:10.1007/s00338-014-1166-x.

Stender, Y., Jokiel, P.L., and Rodgers, K.S., 2014, Thirty years of coral reef change in relation to coastal construction and increased sedimentation at Pelekane Bay, Hawaiʻi: PeerJ, v. 2, no. 300, doi:10.7717/peerj.300.

Storlazzi, C.D., Cheriton, O.M., Lescinski, J.M.R., and Logan, J.B., 2014, Coastal circulation and water-column properties in the War in the Pacific National Historical Park, Guam—Measurements and modeling of waves, currents, temperature, salinity, and turbidity, April–August 2012: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2014–1130, 104 p.

DeMartini, E., Jokiel, P., Beets, J., Stender, Y., Storlazzi, C., Minton, D., and Conklin, E., 2013, Terrigenous sediment impact on coral recruitment and growth affects the use of coral habitat by recruit parrotfishes (F. Scaridae): Journal of Coastal Conservation, v. 17, p. 417–429, doi:10.1007/s11852-013-0247-2.

Grady, A.E., Moore, L.J., Storlazzi, C.D., Elias, E., and Reidenbach, M.A., 2013, The influence of sea level rise and changes in fringing reef morphology on gradients in alongshore sediment transport: Geophysical Research Letters, v. 40, i. 12, p. 3,0963,101, doi:10.1002/grl.50577.

Lamborg, C.H., Swarr, G., Hughen, K., Jones, R., Birdwhistell, S., Fuby, K., Murty, S.A., Prouty, N., and Tseng, C-M, 2013, Determination of low-level mercury in coralline aragonite by calcination--isotope dilution--inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry and its application to Diploria specimens from Castle Harbour, Bermuda: Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, v. 109, p. 27–37, doi:10.1016/j.gca.2013.01.026.

Prouty, N.G., Goodkin, N.F., Jones, R., Lamborg, C.H., Storlazzi, C., and Hughen, K.A., 2013, Environmental assessment of metal exposure to corals living in Castle Harbour, Bermuda: Marine Chemistry, v. 154, p. 55–56, doi:10.1016/j.marchem.2013.05.002.

Rogers, J.S., Monismith, S.G., Feddersen, F., and Storlazzi, C.D., 2013, Hydrodynamics of spur and groove formations on a coral reef: Journal of Geophysical Research - Oceans, v. 118, p. 1–15, doi:10.1002/jgrc.20225.

Field, M.E., Chezar, H., and Storlazzi, C.D., 2012, SedPods—A low-cost coral proxy for measuring net sedimentation: Coral Reefs, v.32, p. 155–159, doi:10.1007/s00338-012-0953-5.

Hoeke, R.K., Storlazzi, C.D., and Ridd, P.V., 2011, Hydrodynamics of a bathymetrically complex fringing coral reef embayment; wave climate, in situ observations and wave prediction: Journal of Geophysical Research—Oceans, v. 116, C04018, p. 19., doi:10.1029/2010JC006170.

Storlazzi, C.D., Field, M.E, and Bothner, M.H., 2011, The use (and misuse) of sediment traps in coral reef environments; Theory, observations, and suggested protocols: Coral Reefs, v. 30, no. 1, p. 23–38, doi:10.1007/s00338-010-0705-3.

Prouty, N.G., Field, M.E., Stock, J.D., Jupiter, S.D., and McCulloch, M.T., 2010, Coral Ba/Ca records of sediment input to the fringing reef of the south shore of Moloka'i, Hawaiʻi, over the last several decades: Marine Pollution Bulletin, v. 60(10), p. 1,822–1,835, doi:10.1016/j.marpolbul.2010.05.024.

Draut, A.E., Bothner, M.H., Field, M.E., Reynolds, R.L., Cochran, S.A., Logan, J.B., Storlazzi, C.D., and Berg, C.J., 2009, Supply and dispersal of flood sediment from a steep, tropical watershed; Hanalei Bay, Kauaʻi, Hawaiʻi, USA: GSA Bulletin, v. 121, no. 3–4, p. 574–585, doi:10.1130/B26367.1.

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Storlazzi, C.D., Field, M.E., Bothner, M.H., Presto, M.K., and Draut, A.E., 2009, Sedimentation processes in a coral reef embayment; Hanalei Bay, Kauai: Marine Geology, v. 264, no. 3–4, p. 140–151, doi:10.1016/j.margeo.2009.05.002.

Takesue, R.K., Bothner, M.H., and Reynolds, R.L., 2009, Sources of land-derived runoff to a coral reef-fringed embayment identified using geochemical tracers in nearshore sediment traps, Hanalei Bay, Kauaʻi: Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, v. 85, no. 3, p. 459–471, doi:10.1016/j.ecss.2009.09.014.

Calhoun, R.S., and Field, M.E., 2008, Sand composition and transport history on a fringing coral reef, Molokaʻi, Hawaiʻi: Journal of Coastal Resources, v. 24, p. 1,151–1,160.

Engels, M.S., Fletcher, C.H., Field, M.E., Conger, C.L., and Bochicchio, C., 2008, Demise of reef-flat carbonate accumulation with late Holocene sea-level fall; evidence from Molokai Hawaii: Coral Reefs, v. 27, no. 4, p. 991–996, doi:10.1007/s00338-008-0410-7.

Fletcher, C.H., Bochicchio, C., Conger, C.L., Engels, M.S., Feirstein, E.J., Frazer, L.N., Glenn, C.R., Grigg, R.W., Grossman, E.E., Harney, J.N., Isoun, E., Murray-Wallace, C.V., Rooney, J.J., Rubin, K.H., Sherman, C.E., and Vitousek, S., 2008, Geology of Hawaiʻi reefs, in Riegl, B., and Dodge, R., eds., Coral Reefs of the U.S.A., Springer-Verlag, p. 435–488.

Piniak, G.A., and Brown, E.K., 2008, Growth and mortality of coral transplants (Pocillopora damicornis) along a range of sediment influence in Maui, Hawaiʻi: Pacific Science, v. 62, no. 1, p. 39–55, doi:10.2984/1534-6188(2008)62[39:GAMOCT]2.0.CO;2.

Piniak, G.A., and Storlazzi, C.D., 2008, Diurnal variability in turbidity and coral fluorescence on a fringing reef flat; Southern Molokai, Hawaii: Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, v. 77, i.1, p. 56–64, doi:10.1016/j.ecss.2007.08.023.

Storlazzi, C.D., and Field, M.E., 2008, Winds. waves. tides, and the resulting flow patterns and fluxes of water, sediment, and coral larvae off West Maui, Hawaiʻi, in Vermeij, M., ed., Coral reefs of Maui; status, stressors and suggestions: San Francisco, Blurb Inc., p. 16–21.

Storlazzi, C.D., and Jaffe, B.E., 2008, The relative contribution of processes driving variability in flow, shear, and turbidity over a fringing coral reef; West Maui, Hawaii: Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, v. 77, i. 4, p. 549–564, doi:10.1016/j.ecss.2007.10.012.

Piniak, G.A., 2007, Effects of two sediment types on the fluorescence yield of two Hawaiian scleractinian corals: Marine Environmental Research, v. 64, no. 4, p. 456–468.

Vitousek, S., Fletcher, C.H., Merrifield, M.A., Pawlak, G., and Storlazzi, C.D., 2007, Model scenarios of shoreline change at Kaanapali Beach, Maui, Hawaiʻi; Seasonal and extreme events: ASCE Coastal Sediments 2007 Meeting, New Orleans, Proceedings, May 13–17, 2007, p. 1,227–1,240.

Bothner, M.H., Reynolds, R.L., Casso, M.A., Storlazzi, C.D., and Field, M.E., 2006, Quantity, composition and source of sediment collected in sediment traps along the fringing coral reef off Molokaʻi, Hawaiʻi: Marine Pollution Bulletin, v. 52, no. 9, p. 1,034–1,047, doi:10.1016/j.marpolbul.2006.01.008.

Presto, M.K., Ogston, A.S., Storlazzi, C.D., and Field, M.E., 2006, Temporal and spatial variability in the flow and dispersal of suspended-sediment on a fringing reef flat, Molokai, Hawaii: Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, v. 67, i. 1–2, p. 67–81, doi:10.1016/j.ecss.2005.10.015.

Stamski, R.E., and Field, M.E., 2006, Characterization of sediment trapped by macroalgae on a Hawaiian reef flat: Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, v. 66, i. 1–2, p. 211–216, doi:10.1016/j.ecss.2005.08.010.

Storlazzi, C.D., McManus, M.A., Logan, J.B., and McLaughlin, B.E., 2006, Cross-shore velocity shear, eddies and heterogeneity in water column properties over fringing coral reefs: West Maui, Hawaii. Continental Shelf Research, v. 26, i. 3, p. 401–421, doi:10.1016/j.csr.2005.12.006.

Field, M.E., 2005, Living with change; Response of the seafloor to natural events, in Barnes, P.W., and Thomas, J.P., eds., Benthic habitats and the effects of fishing; American Fisheries Society Symposium 41, Proceedings of Symposium on effects of fishing activities on benthic habitats; Linking geology, biology, socioeconomics, and management, Tampa, FL, 12–14 November 2002: Bethesda, MD, American Fisheries Society, p. 215–218.

Storlazzi, C.D., Brown, E.K., Field, M.E., Rodgers, K., and Jokiel, P.L., 2005, A model for wave control on coral breakage and species distribution in the Hawaiian Islands: Coral Reefs, v. 24, no. 1, p. 43–55, doi:10.1007/s00338-004-0430-x.

Engels, M.S., Fletcher, C.H., Field, M.E., Storlazzi, C.D., Grossman, E.E., Rooney, J.J.B., Conger, C.L., and Glenn, C., 2004, Holocene reef accretion: Southwest Molokai, Hawaii, U.S.A.: Journal of Sedimentary Research, v. 74, no. 2, p. 255–269, doi:10.1306/073003740255.

Grossman, E.E., and Fletcher, C.H., 2004, Holocene reef development where wave energy reduces accommodation space, Kailua Bay, windward Oʻahu, Hawaiʻi, U.S.A.: Journal of Sedimentary Research, v. 74, no. 1, p. 49–63, doi:10.1306/070203740049.

Ogston, A.S., Storlazzi, C.D., Field, M.E., and Presto, M.K., 2004, Sediment resuspension and transport patterns on a fringing reef flat, Molokai, Hawaii: Coral Reefs, v. 23, no. 4, p. 559–569, doi:10.1007/s00338-004-0415-9.

Rooney, J., Fletcher, C., Grossman, E., Engels, M., and Field, M., 2004, El Niño influence on Holocene reef accretion in Hawaiʻi: Pacific Science, v. 58, no. 2, p. 305–324, doi:10.1353/psc.2004.0022.

Storlazzi, C.D., Ogston, A.S., Bothner, M.H., Field, M.E., and Presto, M.K., 2004, Wave- and tidally-driven flow and sediment flux across a fringing coral reef: Southern Molokai, Hawaii: Continental Shelf Research, v. 24(12), p. 1,397–1,419, doi:10.1016/j.csr.2004.02.010.

Carr, R.S., and Nipper, M., 2003, Final report on toxicity testing of sediments from Molokaʻi and Maui, Hawaiʻi: USGS Marine Ecotoxicology Research Station, Texas A&M University -Corpus Christi, Center for Coastal Studies. Report number TAMU-CC-0302-CCS, 17 p.

Storlazzi, C.D., Logan, J.B., and Field, M.E., 2003, Quantitative morphology of a fringing reef from high-resolution laser bathymetry: Southern Molokai, Hawaii: Geological Society of America Bulletin, v. 115, no. 11, p. 1,344–1,355, doi:10.1130/B25200.1.

Calhoun, R.S., and Field, M.E., 2002, Beach and reef-flat sediments along the south shore of Molokaʻi, Hawaiʻi: Carbonate Beaches 2000, Proceedings of the First International Symposium on Carbonate Sand Beaches, held in Key Largo, Florida, on December 5–8, 2000, Proceedings, American Society of Civil Engineers, p. 163–171.

Storlazzi, C.D., Field, M.E., Dykes, J.D., Jokiel, P.L., and Brown, E.K., 2002, Wave control on reef morphology and coral distribution, Molokaʻi, Hawaiʻi: Waves 2001, Ocean Wave Measurement and Analysis, Fourth International Symposium, San Francisco, CA, Proceedings, 2–6 September 2001, American Society of Civil Engineers, p. 784–793.

Roberts, L.M., 2001, Historical land use, coastal change, and sedimentation on south Molokaʻi reefs, in Saxena, N.K., ed., Recent advances in marine science and technology, 2000, PACON International, Honolulu, HI, p. 167–176.

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USGS Reports

Storlazzi, C.D., Field, M.E., Presto, M.K., Swarzenski, P.W., Logan, J.B., Reiss, T.E., Elfers, T.C., Cochran, S.A., Torresan, M.E., and Chezar, H., 2013, Coastal circulation and sediment dynamics in Pelekane and Kawaihae Bays, Hawaii--measurements of waves, current, temperature, salinity, turbidity, and geochronology: November 2010-March 2011: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2012–1264, 102 p.

Presto, M.K., Storlazzi, C.D., Logan, J.B., Reiss, T.E., and Rosenberger, K.J., 2012, Coastal Circulation and Potential Coral-larval Dispersal in Maunalua Bay, Oʻahu, Hawaii—Measurements of Waves, Currents, Temperature, and Salinity, June–September 2010 : U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2012–1040, 67 p.

Swarzenski, P.W., Storlazzi, C.D., Presto, M.K., Gibbs, A.E., Smith, C.G., Dimova, N.T., Dailer, M.L., and Logan, J.G., 2012, Nearshore morphology, benthic structure, hydrodynamics, and coastal groundwater discharge near Kahekili Beach Park, Maui, Hawaiʻi: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2012–1166, 34 p.

Stock, J.D., Cochran, S.A., Field, M.E, Jacobi, J.D., and Tribble, G., 2011, From ridge to reef--Linking erosion and changing watersheds to impacts on coral reef ecosystems in Hawaiʻi and the Pacific Ocean: U.S. Geological Survey Fact Sheet 2011–3049, 4 p.

Storlazzi, C.D., Presto, M.K., and Brown, E.K., 2011, Coastal circulation and water column properties off Kalaupapa National Historical Park, Molokaʻi, Hawaiʻi, 2008–2010: U.S. Geological Survey Open File Report 2011–1154, 33 p.

Presto, M.K., Storlazzi, C.D., Field, M.E., and Abbott, L.L., 2010, Turbidity on the shallow reef off Kaulana and Hakioawa watersheds on the north coast of Kahoʻolawe, Hawaiʻi; Measurements of turbidity and ancillary data on winds, waves, precipitation, and stream discharge, November 2005 to June 2008: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2010–1037, 15 p.

Storlazzi, C.D., Presto, M.K., Logan, J.B., and Field, M.E., 2010, Coastal circulation and sediment dynamics in Maunalua Bay, Oahu, Hawaii; Measurements of waves, currents, temperature, salinity, and turbidity; November 2008-February 2009: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2010–1217, 59 p.

Takesue, R.K., 2010, Terrigenous sediment provenance from geochemical tracers, south Molokai reef flat, Hawaii: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2010–1155, 17 p.

Storlazzi, C.D., Presto, M.K., and Logan, J.B., 2009, Coastal circulation and sediment dynamics in War-in-the-Pacific National Historical Park, Guam; Measurements of waves, currents, temperature, salinity, and turbidity, July 2007–January 2008: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2009–1195, 79 p.

U.S. Geological Survey, 2009, Science-based strategies for sustaining coral ecosystems: U.S. Geological Survey Fact Sheet 2009–3089, 4 p.

Bothner, M.H., Reynolds, R.L., Casso, M.A., Storlazzi, C.D., and Field, M.E., 2008, Sediment mobility along Molokaʻi's fringing coral reef; Evidence from sediment traps, in Field, M.E., Cochran, S.A., Logan, J.B., and Storlazzi, C.D., eds., The coral reef of south Molokaʻi, Hawaiʻi; Portrait of a sediment-threatened fringing reef: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2007–5101, p. 147–152.

Carr, R.S., and Nipper, M., 2008, Measurements of toxicity in reef sediment, in Field, M.E., Cochran, S.A., Logan, J.B., and Storlazzi, C.D., eds., The coral reef of south Molokaʻi, Hawaiʻi; Portrait of a sediment-threatened fringing reef: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2007–5101, p. 145–146.

Field, M.E., Bothner, M.H., Chavez, P.S., Cochran, S.A., Jokiel, P.L., Ogston, A.S., Presto, M.K., and Storlazzi, C.D., 2008, The effects of a Kona storm on the Molokaʻi reef; November and December 2001, in Field, M.E., Cochran, S.A., Logan, J.B., and Storlazzi, C.D., eds., The coral reef of south Molokaʻi, Hawaiʻi; Portrait of a sediment-threatened fringing reef: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2007–5101, p. 159–164.

Field, M.E., Calhoun, R.S., Storlazzi, C.D., Logan, J.B., and Cochran, S.A., 2008, Sediment on the Molokaʻi reef, in Field, M.E., Cochran, S.A., Logan, J.B., and Storlazzi, C.D., eds., The coral reef of south Molokaʻi, Hawaiʻi; Portrait of a sediment-threatened fringing reef: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2007–5101, p. 137-144.

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Field, M.E., Cochran, S.A., Logan, J.B., and Storlazzi, C.D., eds., 2008, The coral reef of south Molokaʻi, Hawaiʻi; Portrait of a sediment-threatened reef: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2007–5101, 180 p.

Ogston, A.S., Presto, M.K., Storlazzi, C.D., and Field, M.E., 2008, Causes of turbidity on the Molokaʻi reef flat and sediment transport patterns, in Field, M.E., Cochran, S.A., Logan, J.B., and Storlazzi, C.D., eds., The coral reef of south Molokaʻi, Hawaiʻi; Portrait of a sediment-threatened fringing reef: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2007–5101, p. 153–158.

Roberts, L.M., and Field, M.E., 2008, People, land, and the reefs of south Molokaʻi, in Field, M.E., Cochran, S.A., Logan, J.B., and Storlazzi, C.D., eds., The coral reef of south Molokaʻi, Hawaiʻi; Portrait of a sediment-threatened fringing reef: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2007–5101, p. 123-128.

Storlazzi, C.D., and Field, M.E., 2008, Winds, waves, tides, and the resulting flow patterns and fluxes of water, sediment, and coral larvae off West Maui, Hawaii: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2008–1215, 13 p.

Storlazzi, C.D., Field, M.E., Brown, E.K., and Jokiel, P.L., 2008, Waves and their impact on reef growth, in Field, M.E., Cochran, S.A., Logan, J.B., and Storlazzi, C.D., eds., The coral reef of south Molokaʻi, Hawaiʻi; Portrait of a sediment-threatened fringing reef: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2007–5101, p. 105-1008.

Storlazzi, C.D., Presto, M.K., Logan, J.B., and Field, M.E., 2008, Coastal circulation and sediment dynamics in Hanalei Bay, Kauaʻi; Part IV—Measurements of waves, currents, temperature, salinity, and turbidity, June-September 2006: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2008–1295, 29 p.

Draut, A.E., Bothner, M.H., Reynolds, R.L., Buchan, O.C., Cochran, S.A., Casso, M.A., Baldwin, S.M., Goldstein, H., Xiao, J., Field, M.E., and Logan, J.B., 2007, Sedimentary properties of shallow marine cores collected in June and September 2006, Hanalei Bay, Kauaʻi, Hawaiʻi: U.S. Geological Survey Data Series 289.

Field, M.E., Berg, C.J., and Cochran, S.A., eds., 2007, Science and management in the Hanalei watershed; a trans-disciplinary approach: U.S. Geological Survey Open File Report 2007–1219, 87 p.

Carr, R.S., Nipper, M., Field, M.W., and Biedenbach, J.M., 2006, Coastal circulation and sediment dynamics in Hanalei Bay, Kauaʻi, Hawaiʻi, Part II—Studies of sediment toxicity. U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2006–1147, 63 p.

Draut, A.E., Field, M.E., Bothner, M.H., Logan, J.B., Casso, M.A., Baldwin, S.M., and Storlazzi, C.D., 2006, Coastal circulation and sediment dynamics in Hanalei Bay, Kauaʻi, Hawaiʻi; Part II—Tracking recent fluvial sedimentation; Isotope stratigraphy obtained in Summer 2005: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2006–1125, 52 p.

Storlazzi, C.D., Presto, M.K., Logan, J.B., and Field, M.E., 2006, Coastal circulation and sediment dynamics in Hanalei Bay, Kauaʻi. Part I—Measurements of waves, currents, temperature, salinity and turbidity: June – August, 2005. U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2006–1085, 35 p.

Storlazzi, C.D., and Presto, M.K., 2005, Coastal circulation and sediment dynamics along Kaloko-Honokohau National Historical Park, Hawaiʻi: Part I—Measurements of waves, currents, temperature, salinity and turbidity: April-October 2004: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2005–1161, 30 p.

Storlazzi, C.D., and Presto, M.K., 2005, Coastal circulation and sediment dynamics along West Maui, Hawaiʻi: Part IV—Measurements of waves, curents, temperature, salinity and turbidity in Honolua Bay, Northwest Maui: 2003-2004. U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2005–1068, 34 p.

Storlazzi, Curt D., Field, Michael E., Ogston, Andrea S., Logan, Joshua B., Presto, M. Kathy, and Gonzales, Dave G., 2004, Coastal Circulation and Sediment Dynamics along West Maui, Hawaiʻi: Part III—Flow and particulate dynamics during the 2003 summer coral spawning season. U.S. Geological Survey Open File Report 2004–1287.

Storlazzi, Curt D., and Jaffe, Bruce E., 2003, Coastal Circulation and Sediment Dynamics along West Maui, Hawaiʻi: Part I—Long-term measurements of currents, temperature, salinity and turbidity off Kahana, West Maui: 2001-2003. U.S. Geological Survey Open File Report 03–482.

Carr, R.S., and Nipper, M., 2001, Toxicity testing of sediments from Molokai, Hawaii. Final report submitted to US Geological Survey, Geologic Division, Coastal and Marine Geology Program.

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Page Last Modified: 12 December 2014 (sac)