The following is a list of publications cited in this report:
Beach, R.A.; Holman, R.A.; and Stanley, J., 1996. Measuring nearshore bathymetry on high energy beaches. American Geophysical Union Fall Meeting, 1996, F286.
Cote, J.M., 1999. The measurement of nearshore bathymetry on Intermediate and dissipative beaches. Unpublished Masters Thesis, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon, 102 pp.
Gelfenbaum, G., Sherwood, C.R., Kerr, L.A., and Kurrus, K., 2000, Grays Harbor wave refraction experiment 1999: Data report, U.S. Geological Survey Open File Report, OF 00-44, 132 pp.
MacMahan, J., 2001. Hydrographic surveying from a personal watercraft. Journal of Surveying Engineering, 127(1), 12-24.
Ruggiero, P., and Voigt, B., 2000. Beach monitoring in the Columbia River littoral cell, 1997-2000, Washington Department of Ecology Publication # 00-06-26, Olympia, WA, 112 pp.
Additional information about the data collection field activity, W-1-05-PS, is at URL: <http://walrus.wr.usgs.gov/infobank/w/w105ps/html/w-1-05-ps.meta.html>.
U.S. Geological Survey, Coastal and Marine Geology Program, 2007, Bathymetry at Pleasure Point.
This is a Point data set. It contains the following vector data types (SDTS terminology):
Planar coordinates are encoded using Coordinate Pair
Abscissae (x-coordinates) are specified to the nearest 0.05
Ordinates (y-coordinates) are specified to the nearest 0.05
Planar coordinates are specified in meters
The horizontal datum used is D WGS 1984.
The ellipsoid used is WGS 1984.
The semi-major axis of the ellipsoid used is 6378137.
The flattening of the ellipsoid used is 1/298.257.
|Range of values|
|Range of values|
|Range of values|
These data were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey Coastal and Marine Geology Program.
This data will be combined with other bathymetric data in the area to create a map of the region.
The PWC used for the CPSIII is a 2003 Honda AquaTrax F-12 chosen because of its stability, compartment space, and relatively low price. The 3-man PWC measures 3.20 m in length, 1.25 m in width, and 1.06 m in height. During normal surveying operation, the wave runner travels at approximately 3 m/s (6 knots) and can operate for approximately 5 hours on one 60-L fuel tank. The instruments are placed on a bracket at the stern of the vessel, and forward upper part of the vessel in front of the handlebars. On the stern bracket are three large watertight cases, which house the GPS, computer, echo sounder electronics and batteries. In the computer case, the echo sounder and the laptop computer are mounted. This case has six external watertight connectors: one is for serial communication with the GPS, one for the echo sounder transducer, one for the external screen, one for the external 17 button keypad, one for power, and one spare. The complete system is powered by two gel cell 12-volt marine batteries, configured in parallel and housed in a Pelican box mounted on the bracket at the stern of the PWC. The system draws 12 volts at approximately 5 amps.
Horizontal and vertical positioning of the CPSIII is obtained using a Trimble 4700 GPS receiver, which is enclosed in a waterproof Pelican box placed on the bracket at the stern of the PWC. Also within the GPS case is the GPS radio modem (Pacific Crest) that is used to communicate with the shore base station. A small bracket is attached to the topside stern of the vessel for mounting the L1/L2 microcentered GPS antenna and the radio antenna. The GPS antenna is mounted approximately 119 cm directly above the echo sounder transducer.
The echo sounder is an ESE-50 single frequency echo sounder with a 200 kHz transducer manufactured by Flash Fire Technology, Inc. This echo sounder has adjustable gains, offset, and serial outputs. The sampling rate is a function of water depth with an approximate sampling rate of 8 Hz applied in shallow water (0-10 m). The transducer has a 10 - degree conical beam width and generates a pulse at 200 kHz. The echo sounder transducer is mounted on a removable and adjustable arm at the stern of the vessel. The electronics of the echo sounder were reconfigured along with a Big Bay Technologies Inc. P3 mini PC, placed in a watertight Pelican Case. The CPSIII collects data at 5 Hz and while traveling at 3 m/s generates a depth sounding every 0.6 meters along the sea floor.
Navigation and surveying are aided by the use of a monitor (12 inch Big Bay Technologies outdoor high bright display) which is mounted in a watertight case on a bracket forward of the handlebars. A small 17-button programmable Logic Controls keypad (24 cm X 8.9 cm X 3.2 cm) is placed in a waterproof radio bag mounted on the handlebars.
HYPACK allows for surveying within a user-defined coordinate system, in this case NAD83 Washington State Plane (4602) - North and NAVD88. As the GPS base station is set up over a monument and survey accurate data is stored in HYPACK in the appropriate datum.
The CPSIII has the ability to survey preset track lines and data is collected only when the PWC operator selects a line. The PWC operator maneuvers the vessel to one end of the line and drives along the track until the vessel is in a water depth of approximately 1 m.
The salinity is fixed at 31 psu for all lines as its small variations in the sampling region (Gelfenbaum et al., 2000) had a negligible effect when performing a speed of sound correction to the data.
Person who carried out this activity:
The survey-grade GPS equipment used in the monitoring program (Trimble 4000 series receivers) have manufacturer reported Root Mean Square (RMS) accuracies of approximately ±3-cm + 2ppm of baseline length (typically 10 km or less) in the horizontal while operating in Real Time Kinematic surveying mode (Trimble Navigation Limited, 1998). These reported accuracies are, however, additionally subject to multi-path, satellite obstructions, poor satellite geometry, and atmospheric conditions. While the horizontal uncertainty of individual data points is approximately 0.05 m, the CPS III operators cannot stay 'on line' at all times to this level of accuracy. Typically, mean offsets are less than 2.0 m from the preprogrammed track lines and maximum offsets along the approximately 2 km long transects are typically less than 10.0 m.
The survey-grade GPS equipment used in the monitoring program (Trimble 4000 series receivers) have manufacturer reported RMS accuracies of approximately ±5-cm + 2ppm of baseline length (typically 10 km or less) in the vertical while operating in Real Time Kinematic surveying mode (Trimble Navigation Limited, 1998). These reported accuracies are, however, additionally subject to multi-path, satellite obstructions, poor satellite geometry, and atmospheric conditions that can combine to cause a vertical GPS drift that can be as much as 10-cm. While repeatability tests and merges with topographic data suggest sub-decimeter vertical accuracy (MacMahan, 2001), variability in water temperature (not usually measured) can affect depth estimates by as much as 3 % of the water depth. For fresh water, the speed of sound is probably closer to 1450 m/s and would affect depth estimates by approximately 5 cm, due to the shallow depth in most of the lake.
The data is visually inspected for gross inaccuracies using a variety of software packages including HYPACK (Coastal Oceanographics Inc.) and Matlab (Mathworks Inc.).
The fidelity of the data is ensured via the use of survey grade GPS receivers and a geodetic control monument.
Are there legal restrictions on access or use of the data?
- Access_Constraints: None
- Users must assume liability to determine the appropriate use of these data. This data set is not to be used for legal purposes. The Coastal and Marine Geology Program, U.S. Geological Survey should be acknowledged as the data source in products derived from these data. Please contact the USGS for more detailed information if required.
Users must assume liability to determine the appropriate use of these data. This data set is not to be used for legal purposes. The Coastal and Marine Geology Program, U.S. Geological Survey should be acknowledged as the data source in products derived from these data. Please contact the U.S. Geological Survey for more detailed information if required.
|Media you can order:||
(format ISO 9660)
May involve cost recovery for production of CD-ROM. Please contact Peter Ruggiero for additional information and report availability.
Contact Peter Ruggiero at the U.S. Geological Survey.
Please contact Peter Ruggiero at the U.S. Geological Survey for ordering information.