USGS - science for a changing world

Pacific Coastal & Marine Science Center

Pacific EEZ Minerals

Overview

Little is known about the resource potential of the vast mineral deposits that occur within the 200 nautical mile Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) of the U.S. The U.S. EEZ encompasses 3.4 million square nautical miles, an area about 20% greater than the land area of the U.S. Quantitative information about U.S. EEZ resources is essential in order for the Federal and State governments to make informed decisions about:

  1. competitive land(sea)-use issues,
  2. outer continental-margin boundary negotiations,
  3. contaminant issues, and
  4. energy, mineral, and biologic resources potential, including homeland security concerns of self sufficiency in energy and strategic and critical minerals.

Several recent developments relate to mineral resources and U.S. security: A crisis in the supply of copper and other metals is occurring. Increased demands from China and India are driving a dramatic increase in metal prices. The plans of the U.S. to become energy self sufficient by in part using fuel-cells and hybrid automobiles will be more difficult because of these high costs for platinum, an essential component of fuel cells, as well as copper, nickel, and other metals. There has been more than a 35% increase in the world demand for copper over the past 10 years, more than 60% of which has been consumed by China; China has advanced from consuming less than 10% of the global market for metals to over 25% of the market in the past few years and that trend is increasing; India is following on a similar path.

The present reserves cannot sustain the entrance of two new major consumer markets for these metals. The prices of copper, nickel, and platinum have more than tripled in the past 5 years. The result of these dramatic increases in prices of metals and petroleum will be a profound change in the standard of living of the American people. Platinum, copper, nickel, and other metals are abundant in U.S. EEZ mineral deposits, but their distributions and the controls on their accumulation are poorly known. Development of marine mineral deposits offers a way to ameliorate this pending crisis and its affect on the U.S. economy, but much more needs to be learned about these deposits.

Map of the unofficial Pacific island nations Exclusive Economic Zone

Figure legend: Unofficial Exclusive Economic Zone (200 nautical-mile limits) for island nations within the Pacific, only a few of which are named on this figure; those marked in purple are the EEZs of Pacific islands of U.S. affiliation, exclusive of Hawai'i.

  • CNMI = Commonweath of the Northern Mariana Islands;
  • JA = Johnston Atoll;
  • RMI = Republic of the Marshall Islands;
  • FSM = Federated States of Micronesia;
  • KIR = Kiribati;
  • Va = Vanuatu.

Most seamounts in the Pacific are associated with the islands that compose these nations and consequently much of the potential Fe-Mn crust resource occurs within these EEZs (modified from the web site of SOPAC, www.sopac.org.fj)

This project addresses issues concerning mineral resources that occur within the EEZ of Pacific coastal States, Pacific islands of U.S. affiliation, and areas beyond national jurisdictions.

Start/End Dates

10/1/2003 - 9/30/2014

Location

Pacific coastal States and Pacific islands of U.S. interest

Project Chief

James R. Hein

Objectives

This project's goals are to:

  1. provide an assessment of the state-of-knowledge of the mineral resources within the EEZs of Pacific islands of U.S. interest;
  2. analyze and synthesize existing published USGS and other compatible data;
  3. compile, analyze, and make available unpublished USGS data;
  4. collect new data for existing samples if warranted to produce more comprehensive and integrated USGS reports;
  5. collect new samples and data from ships of opportunity for seabed mineral deposits;
  6. provide value-added products based on prior field programs and existing data;
  7. provide liaison participation and expertise on marine mineral issues to national and international organizations, institutes, and agencies; and
  8. provide outreach activities directed to education on EEZ mineral issues.

Approach

The overall strategy is to provide societal relevant coastal and marine resource information and research for the EEZ of Pacific coastal States and Pacific islands and island Nations of U.S. interest.  Specifically, these islands include the U.S. Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Is.; U.S. Territories of Guam, Midway I., Wake I., Johnston I., Jarvis I., Howland-Baker Is., Kingman-Palmyra Is., and American Samoa; Compact of Free Association Nations including Republic of the Marshall Is., Republic of Palau, and the Federated States of Micronesia; and the State of Hawaii. The first product will be an assessment of the state-of-knowledge of resources in the EEZ of these islands, which will be carried out by compiling published data, acquiring unpublished data, and sharing data with institutes and agencies that have worked in those regions. Information, when available, will be compiled for aggregate, precious coral, phosphorite, cobalt-rich ferromanganese crusts and nodules, hydrothermal manganese, polymetallic sulfides, and epithermal gold and base metals. Those data will be analyzed and published along with accompanying maps as a USGS Circular. Data gaps will be identified and recommendations made. Follow-on work will include a resource analysis, to the extent possible, of the Johnston Island and the Marshall Islands EEZs, the two areas that have seen the greatest number of research expeditions and therefore the greatest amount of available minerals information. The Free University of Berlin's database will be combined with the USGS data base for a more complete and integrated analysis.  New samples and data will be collected on ships of opportunity to help fill the data gaps. Value-added efforts will focus on compiling, analyzing, and releasing unpublished USGS minerals data for:

  1. the EEZ off California;
  2. a north-south transect from the Marshall Islands to American Samoa, to look at latitude (spatial) controls on mineralization;
  3. mid-northern latitudes to fill a geographic data gap, where copper-rich samples have been collected; and
  4. NOAA/USGS collaborative data from the CNMI.

If minor amounts of additional analytical data for available samples are required to make the four value-added works more comprehensive, then those data will be obtained.

Relevance and Impact

A critical concern of coastal nations today is the limits of the outer continental margin and the possibility of extending EEZ boundaries based on geologic criteria. Knowledge of potential mineral resources in the EEZ and adjacent areas is essential to that evaluation. This was highlighted in FY05 when the DOS requested USGS energy and mineral resource data for the American Samoa EEZ to evaluate EEZ boundary issues, which this project provided. Many U.S. Government agencies (USGS, DOS, MMS, NOAA) and international agencies (SOPAC, ISA) regularly receive requests from Pacific island nations for information about their EEZ resources.

New concerns about homeland security in terms of self sufficiency in energy and critical and strategic minerals demand that potential resource contributions from the EEZ be understood and considered in the overall resource complement of the U.S. This aspect will also be critical in terms of the standard of living for most Americans because of the dramatically increasing prices of metals (see Statement of Problem), which will be reflected in the prices of the vast number of products that use metals directly or indirectly.

The USGS has a long history of data analyses and collection from Pacific EEZs. That knowledge base, combined with various data bases, can be used to provide products that will clearly delineate our state-of-knowledge and evaluate what needs to be learned in order to realize quantitative resource assessments. At a time when on-land mining faces ever increasing environmental concerns and policy makers are confronted with increasingly more difficult land-use priorities, it behooves us to understand the distribution of minerals offshore and their resource potential.

Map showing main potential deep-water mineral deposit type and contained metals for each Pacific EEZ of U.S. affiliation. Mineral deposit types include crusts, nodules, and sulfides.

Map shows main potential deep-water mineral deposit type and
contained metals for each Pacific EEZ of U.S. affiliation


Key Outcomes

2005-2006: completion of a major, comprehensive work on the state-of-knowledge of marine mineral resources in Pacific islands EEZs of U.S. affiliations, which has been frequently requested world wide. A major conclusion is that information available is minimal to nonexistent for all the EEZs except those of Johnston I., the CNMI, and the Marshall Is., where a moderate amount of data are available. The gaps in our knowledge base are huge. Besides the request by DOS for our resource data (see above), the U.N. International Seabed Authority has repeatedly requested our marine minerals data and our scientific guidance, which are being used to develop criteria for the mining of mineral deposits from the deep seabed.

2008-2009: the results of our geologic evaluation was adopted by the LTC of the ISA in establishing lease block sizes, numbers, and configurations for ferromanganese crusts. The Project Chief participated in the deliberations, presented USGS data, and provided the scientific framework for establishing mining regulations; he was one of only 3 scientists from the global scientific community to be invited as an expert witness. Because of this expertise, the DOS requested that the project chief be part of the U.S. delegation to ISA negotiations on deep-sea mining regulations and be scientific and technical advisor to DOS delegation (2007-present). Other organizations dealing with marine mineral resources regularly contact the Project Chief for consultations. A comprehensive evaluation of manganese deposits in the CNMI offshore was published in prestigious Journal of Geophysical Research in 2008. In 2008, a suite of cobalt-rich crust samples were given to the project by MIT scientists. This complements sets of samples collected for this project by cruises from 2004-2012, each worth about the same amount in ship time. In 2009, a major discovery of a new type of silver- and gold-rich marine mineral deposit was made by the project chief and co-workers during a research cruise to the CNMI EEZ on a Japanese ship.

2010: A cruise in July of FY10 returned to the site discovered in 2009, for more detailed studies.

2012-2013: samples collected from the Arctic Ocean in the potential U.S. ECS shows a high potential for metal resources and rare-earth elements, which will be published in FY14; these are the only mineral deposits in the global ocean with high concentrations of the rare metal scandium.

Products

PUBLISHED REPORTS

Balaram, V., Banakar, V.K., Hein, J.R., and Rao, C.R.M., 2005.  Concentrations of the platinum-group elements (PGE) and gold in manganese nodule samples and their precise determination. In: Törmänen, T.O. and Alapieti, T.T., eds., Extended Abstracts, 10th International Platinum Symposium, 8-11 August 2005, Oulu, Finland, p. 33-36.

Balaram, V., Mathur, R., Banakar, V.K., Hein, J.R., Rao, C.R.M., Rao, T.G., and Dasaram, B., 2006. Determination of the platinum-group elements (PGE) and gold (Au) in ferromanganese nodule reference samples by nickel sulfide fire-assay and Te-coprecipitation with ICP-MS. Indian Journal of Marine Sciences, v. 35, p. 7-16

Banakar, V.K., Hein, J.R., Rajani, R.P., and Chodankar, A.R., 2007. Platinum group elements in ferromanganese crusts of the Afanasiy-Nikitin Seamount, Equatorial Indian Ocean: Source and fractionation. Journal of Earth System Science, v.116, p. 3-13.

Basu, S., Stuart, F.M., Klemm, V., Korschinek, G., Knie, K., and Hein, J.R., 2006. Helium isotopes in ferromanganese crusts from the central Pacific Ocean. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, v. 70, p. 3996-4006

Chan, L.-H. and Hein, J.R., 2007. Lithium contents and isotopic compositions of ferromanganese deposits from the global oceans. Deep-Sea Research II, v. 54, p. 1147-1162, doi:10.1016/j.dsr2.2007.04.011

Embley, R.W., Chadwick, W.W., Jr., Baker, E.T., Butterfield, D.A., Resing, J.A., de Ronde, C.E.J., Tunnicliffe, V., Lupton, J.E., Juniper, S.K., Rubin, K.H., Stern, R.J., Lebon, G.T., Nakamura, K.-I., Merle, S.G., Hein, J.R., Wiens, D.A., and Tamura, Y., 2006. Long-term eruptive activity at a submarine arc volcano. Nature, v. 441, (7092), p. 494-497.

Hein, J.R., 2003.  Polymetallic nodules and crusts.  Encyclopedia of Oceanography and Marine Science, Moschovitis Publishing, New York. 

Hein, J.R., 2003.  Deep-Sea Mining.  Encyclopedia of Oceanography and Marine Science, Moschovitis Publishing, New York.

Hein, J.R., 2003. Reviews: Phosphates: Geochemical, Geobiological, and Materials Importance; Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry, v. 48.  Economic Geology, v. 98(5), p. 1053-1054.  

Hein, J.R., 2004.  Cobalt-rich ferromanganese crusts:  Global distribution, composition, origin and research activities. In: Minerals Other than Polymetallic Nodules of the International Seabed Area; Proceedings of a Workshop held on 26-30 June 2000, International Seabed Authority, Kingston, Jamaica, volume 1, p. 188-256.

Hein, J.R., Clague, D.A., Koski, R.A., Embley, R.W., and Dunham, R.E., 2008. Metalliferous sediment and a silica-hematite deposit within the Blanco Fracture Zone, northeast Pacific. Marine Georesources and Geotechnology, v. 26 (4), p. 317-339, doi:10.1080/10641190802430986

Hein, J.R., Conrad, T.A., and Dunham, R.E., 2009. Seamount characteristics and mine-site model applied to exploration- and mining-lease-block selection for cobalt-rich ferromanganese crusts. Marine Georesources and Geotechnology, v. 27, p. 160-176, DOI:10.1080/10641190902852485

Hein, J.R., Koschinsky, A., and Halliday, A.N., 2003.  Global occurrence of tellurium-rich ferromanganese oxyhydroxide crusts and a model for the enrichment of tellurium.  Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, v. 67 (6), p. 1117-1127.

Hein, J.R., Koschinsky, A., and McIntyre, B., 2005.  The global enrichment of platinum group elements in marine ferromanganese crusts.  In: Törmänen, T.O. and Alapieti, T.T., eds., Extended Abstracts, 10th International Platinum Symposium, 7-11 August 2005, Oulu, Finland, p. 98-101.

Hein, J.R., Koschinsky, A., and McIntyre, B.R., 2005. Mercury- and silver-rich ferromanganese-oxides, Southern California Borderland: Deposit model and environmental implications. Economic Geology, v. 100 (6), p. 1151-1168.

Hein, J.R., McIntyre, B.R., and Piper, D.Z., 2005. State of knowledge of marine mineral resources in Exclusive Economic Zones of Pacific islands of U.S. affiliation, excluding Hawaii. U.S. Geological Survey Circular 1286, 62 pp.

Hein, J.R., Schulz, M.S., Dunham, R.E., Stern, R.J., and Bloomer S.H., 2008. Diffuse flow hydrothermal manganese mineralization along the active Mariana and southern Izu-Bonin arc system, western Pacific. Journal of Geophysical Research, v. 113, B08S14, doi:10.1029/2007JB005432

Hein, J.R., Zierenberg, R.A., Maynard, J.B., and Hannington, M.D., 2007. Barite-forming environments along a rifted continental margin, southern California Borderland. Deep-Sea Research II, v. 54, p. 1327-1349, doi:10.1016/j.dsr2.2007.04.011

Klemm, V., Frank, M., Levasseur, S., Halliday, A.N., and Hein, J.R., 2008. Seawater osmium isotope evidence for a middle Miocene flood basalt event in ferromanganese crust records. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, v. 273., p. 175-183.

Klemm, V., Levasseur, S., Frank, M., Hein, J.R., and Halliday, A.N., 2005. Osmium isotope stratigraphy of a ferromanganese crust. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, v. 238, p. 42-48.

Koschinsky, A. and Hein, J.R., 2003.  Uptake of elements from seawater by ferromanganese crusts:  solid phase association and seawater speciation.  Marine Geology, v. 198, p. 331-351.

Koschinsky, A., Hein, J.R., and Bau, M., 2004. The importance of surface oxidation on Mn and Fe oxides for the fractionation of Te and Se. Proceedings of the 11th International Symposium on Water-Rock Interaction, June-July, 2004, Saratoga Springs, NY, Taylor and Francis Group, London, p. 1323-1326. 

Koschinsky, A., Hein, J.R., and Audroing, J., 2005.  The enrichment of platinum and the fractionation of Pt from Pd in marine ferromanganese crusts. In: Törmänen, T.O. and Alapieti, T.T., eds., Extended Abstracts,  10th International Platinum Symposium, 7-11 August 2005, Oulu, Finland, p. 429-432.

Koski, R.A., and Hein, J.R., 2004. Stratiform barite deposits in the Roberts Mountains Allochthon, Nevada: A review of potential analogs in modern sea-floor environments.  In:  Bliss, J.D., Moyle, P.R., and Long, K.R. (eds.), Contributions to industrial minerals research: U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 2209-H, 17 pp; (http://pubs.usgs.gov/bul/b2209-h/).

Lee, T.-G., Hein, J.R., Lee, K., Moon, J.-W., and Ko, Y.-T., 2005.  Sub-seafloor acoustic characterization of seamounts near the Ogasawara Fracture Zone in the western Pacific using chirp (3-7 kHz) subbottom profiles.  Deep-Sea Research I, v. 52, p. 1932-1956. 

Lee, T.-G., Lee, K., Hein, J.R., and Moon, J.-W., 2009. Geophysical investigation of seamounts near the Ogasawara Fracture Zone, western Pacific. Earth, Planets, and Space, v. 61 (3). P. 319-331.

Levasseur, S., Frank, M., Hein, J.R., and Halliday, A.N., 2004.  The global variation in the iron isotope composition of marine hydrogenetic ferromanganese deposits: Implications for seawater chemistry?  Earth and Planetary Science Letters, v. 224, p. 91-105.

Meyer, F.M., Halbach, P.E., Martens, P.N., Hein, J.R., and Scott, S., 2008. Deep-sea mining: Integrating geology, oceanography, and engineering. EOS, Transactions, American Geophysical Union, v. 89(39), 23 Sept. 23 2008, p. 365; full text at http://www.agu.org/eos_elec/

Muiños, S.B., Frank, M., Maden, C., Hein, J.R., van de Flierdt, T., Lebreiro, S.M., Gaspar, L., Monteiro, J.H., and Halliday, A.N., 2008. New constraints on the Pb and Nd isotopic evolution of NE Atlantic water masses. Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems, v. 9 (2), 12 February, Q02007, 18 pp., doi:10.1029/2007GC001766

Nielsen, S.G., Mar-Gerrison, S., Gannoun, A., LaRowe, D., Klemm,V., Halliday, A.N., Burton, K.W., and Hein, J.R., 2009. Thallium isotope evidence for a permanent increase in marine organic carbon export in the early Eocene. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, v. 278, p. 297-307 doi:10.1016/j.epsl.2008.12.010

Polgári, M., Szabó-Drubina, M., and Hein, J.R., 2003.  Phosphogenesis in Jurassic black shale-hosted Mn-carbonate deposit, Úrkút-Eplény, Hungary:  Investigations of archive sample drillcore Úrkút-136.  Földtani Közlöny, v. 133/1, p. 37-48. 

Polgári, M., Szabó-Drubina, M., Hein, J.R., and Szabó, Z., 2003.  Analysis of an archive sample from the carbonatic manganese ore sequence, Eplény, Hungary.  Földtani Közlöny, v. 133/1, p. 21-35.

Polgári, M., Szabó, Z, Szabó-Drubina, M., Hein, J.R., and Yeh, H.-W., 2005.  A porous silica rock (“Tripoli”) in the footwall of the Jurassic Úrkút manganese deposit, Hungary: Composition, and origin through carbonate dissolution. Sedimentary Geology, v. 177, p. 87-96.

Rehkämper, M., Frank, M., Hein, J.R., Halliday, A., 2004. Cenozoic marine geochemistry of thallium deduced from isotopic studies of ferromanganese crusts and pelagic sediments.  Earth and Planetary Science Letters, v. 219, p. 77-91. 

Scott, S., Atmanand, M.A., Batchelor, D., Finkl, C., Garnett, R., Goodden, R., Hein, J., Heydon, D., Hobbs, C., Morgan, C., Rona, P., and Surawardi, N., 2008. Mineral Deposits in the sea: Second report of the ECOR (Engineering Committee on Oceanic Resources) Panel on Marine Mining, London, October 2008, 36 pp. (http://oceanicresources-ecor.amc.edu.au)

Scott, S., Atmanand, M.A., Hein, J., Heydon, D., and Morgan, C., 2006. Mineral Deposits in the sea: A future resource. Report of the ECOR (Engineering Committee on Oceanic Resources) Specialist Panel on Marine Mining, London, 23 March, 2006,13 pp, http://www.rina.org.uk/rfiles/ECOR/06MarineMiningPanelReport.pdf

Tihansky, A. and Hein, J.R., 2012. USGS assesses deep-sea mineral deposits: Possible source for rare metals used by high-technology industries. Newswave, Summer 2012, News from the DOI Ocean, coasts and great lakes, p.11.

van de Flierdt, T., Frank, M., Halliday, A.N., Hein, J.R., Hattendorf, B., Günther, D., and Kubik, P., 2003.  Lead isotopes in North Pacific deep water--implications for past changes in input sources and circulation patterns.  Earth and Planetary Science Letters, v. 209, p. 149-164. 

van de Flierdt, T., Frank, M., Halliday, A.N., Hein, J.R., Hattendorf, B., Günther, D., and Kubik, P.W., 2004.  Deep and bottom water export from the Southern Ocean to the Pacific over the past 38 million years.  Paleoceanography, 19, PA1020, doi:10.1029/2003PA000923

van de Flierdt, T., Frank, M., Halliday, A.N., Hein, J.R., Hattendorf, B., Günther, D., and Kubik, P.W., 2004. Tracing the history of submarine hydrothermal inputs and the significance of hydrothermal hafnium for the seawater budget—a combined Pb-Hf-Nd isotope approach.  Earth and Planetary Science Letters, v. 222, p. 259-273. 

van de Flierdt, T., Frank, M., Lee, D.-C., Halliday, A.N., Reynolds, B.C., and Hein, J.R., 2004.  New constraints on the sources and behavior of neodymium and hafnium in seawater from Pacific Ocean ferromanganese crusts.  Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, v. 68, p. 3827-3843.

PRESENTATIONS

Alexander, B.W., Koschinsky, A., Hein, J.R., Schirmer, T., and Bau, M., 2009. Fractionation of Se and Te in ferromanganese crusts and its potential application as paleo-redox proxy. 99th Annual Meeting of the Geologische Vereinigung, GPresentations, Delivered: Alexander, B.W., Koschinsky, A., Hein, J.R., Schirmer, T., and Bau, M., 2009. Fractionation of Se and Te in ferromanganese crusts and its potential application as paleo-redox proxy. 99th Annual Meeting of the Geologische Vereinigung, Gãttingen, Germany, 5-7 October 2009. H. Von Eynatten, J. Reitner, G. Wãrner (eds), Universitãtsdrucke Gãttingen, p. 7-8.

Banakar, V.K., Rajani, R.P., and Hein, J.R., 2005. Genesis and growth history of ferromanganese encrustations from Afanasiy-Nikitin Seamounts in the equatorial India Ocean. Abstracts and Proceedings, 35th Underwater Mining Institute, 1-6 November, Monterey, California, p. 9-18.

Barnard, P., Foxgrover, A.C., Elias, E., Erikson, L.H., Hein, J.R., McGann, M.L., Mizell, K., Rosenbauer, R.J., Swarzenski, P.W., Takesue, R.K., Wong, F.L., and Woodrow, D.L., 2012. Identifying beach sand sources and pathways in the San Francisco Bay Coastal System through the integration of bed characterisitics, geochemical tracers, current measurements, and numerical modeling. Abstract OS23D-02, presented at Fall Meeting, AGU, San Francisco, CA, 3-7 December 2012.

Bolz, V., Levasseur, S., Frank, M., Hein, J., and Halliday, A., 2004.  Osmium isotope stratigraphy of ferromanganese crusts. Abstracts, December AGU, San Francisco, EOS, Transactions of the American Geophysical Union Supplement, 85(47), Fall Meeting, San Francisco, abstract PP33A-0912.

Chadwick, W.W., Embley, R.W., de Ronde, C., Stern, R.J., Hein, J., Merle, S.G., and Ristau, S., 2004.  The geologic setting of hydrothermal vents at Mariana arc submarine volcanoes:  High-resolution bathymetry and ROV observations. Abstracts, December AGU, San Francisco, EOS, Transactions of the American Geophysical Union Supplement, 85(47), Fall Meeting, San Francisco, abstract V43F-06.

Chan, L.H. and Hein, J.R., 2004.  Lithium contents and isotopes of ferromanganese deposits from the global oceans. Abstracts, December AGU, San Francisco, EOS, Transactions of the American Geophysical Union Supplement, v. 85(47), Fall Meeting, San Francisco, abstract OS21A-1206.

Conrad, T.A. and Hein, J.R., 2012. Geochemical anomalies of California margin ferromanganese crusts relative to global open-ocean crusts. Proceedings of the 34th International Geological Congress, 5-10 August 2012, Brisbane Australia, p. 2973.

Conrad, T.A., Hein, J.R., and Paytan, A., 2012. Off-shore to near-shore transects of ferromanganese crusts adjacent to the California margin. Abstract OS41D-1766, American Geophysical Union Fall Meeting, 3-7 December, San Francisco, California.

de Ronde, C.E.J., Hein, J.R., Embley, R.W., and Stern, R.J., 2004.  Hydrothermal mineralization along the volcanically active Mariana arc. Abstracts, December AGU, San Francisco, EOS, Transactions of the American Geophysical Union, on CD.

Ditchburn, R.G., de Ronde, C.E.J., Barry, B.J., Embley, R.W., Chadwick, W.W., Hein, J.R., and Butterfield, D.A., 2008. High-sulfidation submarine hydrothermal systems of the Mariana arc. 38th Underwater Mining Institute, Oxford Mississippi, 17-21 November, 2008, p. Ditchburn 1-5.

Embley, R.W., Baker, E.T., Butterfield, D., Chadwick, W.W., Jr., de Ronde, C., Dower, J., Evans, L., Hein, J., Juniper, K., Lebon, G., Lupton, J.E., Merle, S., Metaxas, A., Nakamura, K., Resing, J.E., Roe, K., Stern, R., Tunnicliffe, V., 2004.  Active volcanic and hydrothermal processes at NW Rota-1 submarine volcano:  Mariana subduction zone. Abstracts, December AGU, San Francisco, EOS, Transactions of the American Geophysical Union Supplement, Fall Meeting, San Francisco, v. 85 (47), abst. V43F-05.

Foster, A., Klofas, J., Hein, J., Koschinsky, A., Bargar, J., Dunham, R., Conrad, T., 2011. Speciation of critical elements in marine ferromanganese crusts and nodules by principal component analysis and least-squares fits to XAFS spectra. Poster, SSRL/LCLS Users¿ Meeting and Workshops, 22-26 Oct 2011, Menlo Park, CA

Foster, A., Klofas, J., Hein, J., Koschinsky, A., Bargar, J., Dunham, R., Conrad, T., 2011. Speciation of energy critical elements in marine ferromanganese crusts by principal component analysis and least-squares fits to XAFS spectra. Abstract V12A-03, presented at Fall Meeting, AGU, San Francisco, CA, 5-11 December 2011.

Frank, M., Hattendorf, B., Günther, D., and Hein, J.R., 2006. Changes in ocean chemistry across the K/T boundary: A laser-ablation study of a marine Fe/Mn crust. Abstracts, Goldschmidt Conference, Melbourne, Australia, S11-04

Frank, M., Hattendorf, B., Günther, D., and Hein, J.R., 2006. Changes in ocean chemistry across the K/T boundary: A laser-ablation study of a marine ferromanganese crust. EOS Transactions, AGU, 87(52), Fall Meeting Supplement, Abstract PP21C-1705

González, F.J., Somoza, L., Hein, J.R., Vázquez, J.T., Medialdea, T., León, R., Martín-Rubí, J.A., Bellido, E., Reyes, J., 2012. Deep-water seamounts and banks along the Atlantic Spanish continental margin as a potential source of raw materials. European Mineralogical Conference, 2-6 September 2012, Frankfurt Germany, v. 1, EMC2012-422

Hein J.R., 2012. Rare metals and rare-earth elements in deep-ocean mineral deposits. International Seabed Authority sponsored sensitization seminar on issues related to deep seabed mining: http://www.isa.org.jm/files/documents/EN/Seminars/2012/Hein-2.pdf [INVITED]

Hein, J.R. and Conrad, T.A., 2012. Resource considerations for ferromanganese crusts in Oceania. Proceedings of the 34th International Geological Congress, 5-10 August 2012, Brisbane Australia, p. 2972. [INVITED KEYNOTE]

Hein, J.R. and Dunham, R.E., 2008. Mine-site model for cobalt-rcih Fe-Mn crusts. Abstracts, DSMM 2008: Shaping the Future, Deep-Sea Minerals and Mining, 9-13 March, 2008, Aachen Germany, RWTH Aachen University, p. 11-13.

Hein, J.R. and Mizell, K., 2012. Turning to the Sea: A look at how the deep ocean can offer solutions to modern society's need for rare metals. Poster, Earth, Science, Art, sixteen collaborative explorations. USGS.

Hein, J.R., 2008. Physical properties of Co-rich ferromanganese crusts. Abstracts, DSMM 2008: Shaping the Future, Deep-Sea Minerals and Mining, 9-13 March, 2008, Aachen Germany, RWTH Aachen University, p. 8-10

Hein, J.R., 2011. Contribution of deep-ocean minerals to the global minerals wealth. 14th Brazilian Mining Congress, 26-29 September 2011, Belo Horizonte. By session on CD. [INVITED]

Hein, J.R., 2012. Deep-ocean mineral deposits in the global ocean. International Seabed Authority sponsored sensitization seminar on issues related to deep seabed mining: http://www.isa.org.jm/files/documents/EN/Seminars/2012/Hein-1.pdf [INVITED]

Hein, J.R., 2012. Opportunities and challenges for mining exploration in the deep ocean. 5th International Conference on Innovation in Mine Operations, 20-22 June, 2012. [INVITED PLENARY OPENING CEREMONY KEYNOTE]

Hein, J.R., 2013. Manganese nodules redux. Canadia Institute of Mining, Metallurgy, and Petroleum Annual Conference, 5-8 May 2013, Toronto. Convention Program, p. 52. [INVITED]

Hein, J.R., Bargar. J., Koschinsky, A., Dunham, R., Halliday, A.N., 2007. Sequestration of tellurium from seawater by ferromanganese crusts: A XANES/EXAFS perspective. EOS Transactions, AGU, 88(52), Fall Meeting Supplement, Abstract PP13A-1029.

Hein, J.R., Clague, D.A., Embley, R.W., Vrijenhoek, R.C., and Koski, R.A., 2006. Hydrothermal hematite/silica rocks from the Blanco Fracture Zone, northeast Pacific. 36th Underwater Mining Institute, Kiel Germany, 23-26 September 2006, p. Hein 1-Hein 3

Hein, J.R., Clague, D.A., McIntyre, B.R., Paduan, J., and Davis, A.S., 2004. Formation of Fe-Mn crusts under conditions of strong upwelling at a continental margin: Rodriguez Seamount, offshore central California. Abstracts and Program, 34th Underwater Mining Institute, September, 2003, London, p. 41-43.

Hein, J.R., Conrad, T.A., Klofas, J., Runtzel, K., 2012. Metal-rich mineral deposits found in the western Arctic Ocean. American Geophysical Uion, 2012 Science Policy Conference, 30 April-3 May, Washington DC.

Hein, J.R., Conrad, T.A., and Koschinsky, A., 2011. Comparison of land-based REE ore deposits with REE-rich marine Fe-Mn crusts and nodules. Abstracts, Goldschmidt 2011, 14-19 August, Prague, Czech Republic. Mineralogical Magazine, p. 1000.

Hein, J.R., Conrad, T.A., and Koschinsky, A., 2011. Marine ferromanganese deposits as a source of rare metals for high- and green-tech applications: Comparison with land-based deposits. Abstract V12A-04, presented at Fall Meeting, AGU, San Francisco, CA, 5-11 December 2011. [INVITED]

Hein, J.R., Dunham, R.E., and Halbach, P., 2008. Importance of Fe-Mn crust physical properties to resource development. Abstracts and Program, 33rd International Geological Congress, 6-14 August 2008, Oslo Norway, session MRD-03, alphabetical on CD.

Hein, J.R., Dunham, R.E., and Halbach, P., 2008. Importance of Fe-Mn crust physical properties to resource development. Abstracts and Program, 33rd International Geological Congress, 6-14 August 2008, Oslo Norway, session MRD-03, alphabetical on CD.

Hein, J.R., Klofas, J., Mizell, K., and Conrad, T.A., 2012. Rare-Metal-Rich Ferromanganese Mineral Deposits from the Western Arctic Ocean. Abstracts, 41st Underwater Mining Institute, 15-20 October 2012, Shanghai China, p. Hein 1-3.

Hein, J.R., Koschinsky, A., Bargar, J., and Conrad, T., 2009. Geochemistry of marine ferromanganese crusts. 237th American Chemical Society National Meeting, 22-26 March, 2009, Salt Lake City; alphabetical on CD.

Hein, J.R., Koschinsky, A., Schmidt, K., Conrad, T.A., Alexander, B., and Bau, M., 2011. Strategic economic metals for emerging technologies in ferromanganese nodules and crusts. Proceedings of The Nineth (2011) ISOPE Ocean Mining Symposium, 19-24 June, Maui, Hawaii.

Hein, J.R., McIntyre, B.R., and Staudigel, H., 2004. Geographic and oceanographic controls on Fe-Mn crust chemistry along a NW-SE transect of the equatorial Pacific. Abstracts with Program of the 32nd International Geological Congress, 20-28 August, Florence Italy, part 2, p. 1197-1198.

Hein, J.R., McIntyre, B., and Staudigel, H., 2003.  Latitudinal changes in Fe-Mn oxide crust chemistry:  Detailed NW-SE transect of the Equatorial Pacific, Marshall Islands to Samoa.  Proceedings of 33rd Underwater Mining Institute Conference, Cheju I., Korea, October 2003, extended abstract, p. 29-31.

Hein, J.R., Clague, D.A., McIntyre, B.R., Paduan, J., and Davis, A.S., 2004.  Formation of Fe-Mn crusts under conditions of strong upwelling at a continental margin: Rodriguez Seamount, offshore central California.  Proceedings of the 34th Underwater Mining Institute, September 2003, London, p. 41-43.

Horner, T.J., Schönbächler, M., Rehkämper, M., Williams, H., Nielsen, S.G., Halliday, A.N., and Hein, J.R., 2008. Ferromanganese crusts as archives of deep-water Cd isotope compositions. Abstracts, 18th Goldschmidt Conference, VanCouver, Canada. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, v. 72 (12S), p A392.

Koschinsky, A. and Hein, J.R., 2003.  Scavenging and fractionation of selenium and tellurium on Mn oxides and Fe oxyhydroxide.  Abstracts and Program, German Mineralogical Society and Geological Society Annual Meeting, Sept., 2003; European Journal of Mineralogy, v. 16 (1), p. 106.

Koschinsky, A. and Hein, J.R., 2009. Sequestration of rare metals from seawater by ferromanganese oxides¿implications from sorption experiments and XANES/EXAFS studies. Abstracts, 87th Annual Meeting of the German Mineralogical Societry, Halle-Wittenberg, 13-17 September 2009; Hallesches Jahrbuch für Geowissenschaften, v. 31, p. 132.

Koski, R.A. and Hein, J.R., 2003.  Sea-floor barite deposits at active continental margins: Analogues for stratiform deposits in Nevada?  39th Industrial Minerals Forum, Sparks, Nevada, May 2003. 

Levasseur, S., Frank, M., Hein, J., and Halliday, A.N., 2003.  Iron isotope variations in marine ferromanganese deposits. EGS-AGU-EUG Joint Assembly, Nice, France, April 2003.

Muiños, S.B., Frank, M., Maden, M.C., Hein, J.R., Lebreiro, S.M., Gaspar, L., Monteiro, J.H., van de Flierdt, T., and Halliday, A.N., 2007. New constraints on the Pb and Nd isotopic evolution of NE Atlantic water masses. International Conference and 97th Annual Meeting of the Geologische Vereinigung, The Oceans in the Earth System. Bremen, Germany, 1-5 October 2007, Terra Nostra, v. 2007/1-2, p. 170.

Nielsen, S., Mar-Gerrison, S., LaRowe, D., Klemm,V., Halliday, A., Burton, K., and Hein, J., 2008. Thallium isotopes in ferromanganese crusts as a proxy for marine productivity. EOS Transactions, AGU, 89(53), Fall Meeting Supplement, Abstract PP33C-1593.

Nielsen, S.G., Gannoun, A., Burton, K.W., Halliday, A.N., and Hein, J.R., 2009. Miocene Os and Tl isotopes in the Indian Ocean: Implications for Antarctic water export and the residence time of Os. Goldschmidt Conference, June 21-26, Davos, Switzerland, Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, v. 73 (13), Supplement 1, p. A942.

Nielsen, S.G., Klemm, V., LaRowe, D., Halliday, A.N., and Hein, J.R., 2007. Systematic temporal thallium isotope variations in a 72 Ma old Fe-Mn crusts: A proxy for changes in ocean chemistry? EOS Transactions, AGU, 88(52), Fall Meeting Supplement, Abstract PP21A-08.

Polgári, M., Hein, J.R., Tóth, M., Vigh, T., and Bíró, L., 2007. Did hydrothermal fluids contribute to the huge Urkut carbonate ore body? Goldschmidt Conference, 19-24 August 2007, Cologne, Germany, Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, v. 71 (15S), p. A801.

Rehkämper, M., Nielsen, S., Frank, M., Hein, J. and Halliday, A., 2003. Cenozoic marine geochemistry of thallium deduced from isotopic studies of ferromanganese crusts. EGS-AGU-EUG Joint Assembly, Nice, France, April 2003.

Stakes, D., Perfit, M., Wheat, C.G., Delong, E., Ramirez, T., Koski, R.A., and Hein, J.R., 2003.  Evidence of off-Axis volcanism and hydrothermal venting along the Cleft segment of the southern Juan de Fuca Ridge.  EGS-AGU-EUG Joint Assembly, Nice, France, April 2003. 

Stern, R.J., Basu, N., Kohut, E., Hein, J., and Embley, R.W., 2004.  Petrology and geochemistry of igneous rocks collected in association with ROV investigations of three hydrothermal sites in the Mariana arc:  NW Rota-1, E Diamonte, and NW Eifuku. Abstracts, December AGU, San Francisco, EOS, Transactions of the American Geophysical Union, on CD.

van de Flierdt, T., Frank, M., Lee, D.-C., Halliday, A.N., Reynolds, B.C., and Hein, J.R., 2004.  New constraints on sources and budgets of Nd and Hf in Pacific seawater.  American Geophysical Union, Ocean Sciences Meeting, January 2004, Portland, OR.

van de Flierdt, T., Frank, M., Halliday, A.N., Hattendorf, B., Günter, D., Kubik, P.W., and Hein, J.R., 2004.  Tracing the history of submarine hydrothermal inputs using Pb isotopes from ferromanganese crusts.  Goldschmidt Conference, 5-11 June 2004, Copenhagen, Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, v. 68, p. A261.

Williams, H.M., Nielsen, S.G., Burton, K.W., Hein, J.R., Siebert, C., and Halliday, A.N., 2009. Temperal variations in the iron isotopic compositions of Pacific hydrogenetic Fe-Mn crusts. Goldschmidt Conference, June 21-26, Davos, Switzerland, Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, v. 73 (13), Supplement 1, p. A1445.

Yeh, H.-W., Chan, L.-H., and Hein, J.R., 2004.  The meaning of 87Sr/86Sr ages of authigenic seamount phosphorite. Abstracts, December AGU, San Francisco, EOS, Transactions of the American Geophysical Union, on CD.

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