Pacific Coastal & Marine Science Center
Pacific EEZ Minerals
Little is known about the resource potential of the vast mineral deposits that occur within the 200 nautical mile Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) of the U.S. The U.S. EEZ encompasses 3.4 million square nautical miles, an area about 20% greater than the land area of the U.S. Quantitative information about U.S. EEZ resources is essential in order for the Federal and State governments to make informed decisions about:
Several recent developments relate to mineral resources and U.S. security: A crisis in the supply of copper and other metals is occurring. Increased demands from China and India are driving a dramatic increase in metal prices. The plans of the U.S. to become energy self sufficient by in part using fuel-cells and hybrid automobiles will be more difficult because of these high costs for platinum, an essential component of fuel cells, as well as copper, nickel, and other metals. There has been more than a 35% increase in the world demand for copper over the past 10 years, more than 60% of which has been consumed by China; China has advanced from consuming less than 10% of the global market for metals to over 25% of the market in the past few years and that trend is increasing; India is following on a similar path.
The present reserves cannot sustain the entrance of two new major consumer markets for these metals. The prices of copper, nickel, and platinum have more than tripled in the past 5 years. The result of these dramatic increases in prices of metals and petroleum will be a profound change in the standard of living of the American people. Platinum, copper, nickel, and other metals are abundant in U.S. EEZ mineral deposits, but their distributions and the controls on their accumulation are poorly known. Development of marine mineral deposits offers a way to ameliorate this pending crisis and its affect on the U.S. economy, but much more needs to be learned about these deposits.
This project addresses issues concerning mineral resources that occur within the EEZ of Pacific coastal States, Pacific islands of U.S. affiliation, and areas beyond national jurisdictions.
This project's goals are to:
The overall strategy is to provide societal relevant coastal and marine resource information and research for the EEZ of Pacific coastal States and Pacific islands and island Nations of U.S. interest. Specifically, these islands include the U.S. Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Is.; U.S. Territories of Guam, Midway I., Wake I., Johnston I., Jarvis I., Howland-Baker Is., Kingman-Palmyra Is., and American Samoa; Compact of Free Association Nations including Republic of the Marshall Is., Republic of Palau, and the Federated States of Micronesia; and the State of Hawaii. The first product will be an assessment of the state-of-knowledge of resources in the EEZ of these islands, which will be carried out by compiling published data, acquiring unpublished data, and sharing data with institutes and agencies that have worked in those regions. Information, when available, will be compiled for aggregate, precious coral, phosphorite, cobalt-rich ferromanganese crusts and nodules, hydrothermal manganese, polymetallic sulfides, and epithermal gold and base metals. Those data will be analyzed and published along with accompanying maps as a USGS Circular. Data gaps will be identified and recommendations made. Follow-on work will include a resource analysis, to the extent possible, of the Johnston Island and the Marshall Islands EEZs, the two areas that have seen the greatest number of research expeditions and therefore the greatest amount of available minerals information. The Free University of Berlin's database will be combined with the USGS data base for a more complete and integrated analysis. New samples and data will be collected on ships of opportunity to help fill the data gaps. Value-added efforts will focus on compiling, analyzing, and releasing unpublished USGS minerals data for:
If minor amounts of additional analytical data for available samples are required to make the four value-added works more comprehensive, then those data will be obtained.
A critical concern of coastal nations today is the limits of the outer continental margin and the possibility of extending EEZ boundaries based on geologic criteria. Knowledge of potential mineral resources in the EEZ and adjacent areas is essential to that evaluation. This was highlighted in FY05 when the DOS requested USGS energy and mineral resource data for the American Samoa EEZ to evaluate EEZ boundary issues, which this project provided. Many U.S. Government agencies (USGS, DOS, MMS, NOAA) and international agencies (SOPAC, ISA) regularly receive requests from Pacific island nations for information about their EEZ resources.
New concerns about homeland security in terms of self sufficiency in energy and critical and strategic minerals demand that potential resource contributions from the EEZ be understood and considered in the overall resource complement of the U.S. This aspect will also be critical in terms of the standard of living for most Americans because of the dramatically increasing prices of metals (see Statement of Problem), which will be reflected in the prices of the vast number of products that use metals directly or indirectly.
The USGS has a long history of data analyses and collection from Pacific EEZs. That knowledge base, combined with various data bases, can be used to provide products that will clearly delineate our state-of-knowledge and evaluate what needs to be learned in order to realize quantitative resource assessments. At a time when on-land mining faces ever increasing environmental concerns and policy makers are confronted with increasingly more difficult land-use priorities, it behooves us to understand the distribution of minerals offshore and their resource potential.
FY05-06: completion of a major, comprehensive work on the state-of-knowledge of marine mineral resources in Pacific islands EEZs of U.S. affiliations, which has been frequently requested world wide. A major conclusion is that information available is minimal to nonexistent for all the EEZs except those of Johnston I., the CNMI, and the Marshall Is., where a moderate amount of data are available. The gaps in our knowledge base are huge. Besides the request by DOS for our resource data (see above), the U.N. International Seabed Authority has repeatedly requested our marine minerals data and our scientific guidance, which are being used to develop criteria for the mining of mineral deposits from the deep seabed.
2008: our geologic evaluation was adopted by the Legal and Technical Commission in establishing lease block sizes, numbers, and configurations for ferromanganese crusts. The Project Chief participated in the deliberations, presented USGS data, and provided the scientific framework for establishing mining regulations; he was one of only 3 scientists from the global scientific community to be invited as an expert witness for science.
FY07-09: Because of this expertise, the DOS requested that the project chief be part of the U.S. delegation to ISA negotiations on deep-sea mining regulations and be the scientific and technical advisor to DOS delegates. Other organizations dealing with Law of the Sea issues and marine resources have regularly contacted the Project Chief for consultations, e.g., the Engineering Committee on Oceanic Resources. A comprehensive evaluation of manganese deposits in the CNMI offshore was published in the prestigious Journal of Geophysical Research in FY08. In FY08, a suite of cobalt-rich crust samples were collected and given to the project by MIT scientists, a collection worth about $400,000 in ship time. This complements sets of samples collected for this project by cruises that took place in the preceding 3 years, each worth about the same amount in ship time.
FY09: a major discovery of a new type of deep-sea mineral deposit was made by the project chief and co-workers during a research cruise to the CNMI EEZ.
FY2010: focus is on writing several key manuscripts and having them published, including a solicited review paper in the prestigious book series The Treatise on Geochemistry. Ship-board data will be compiled for two cruises to the CNMI, where a new type of deep-sea mineral deposit was found in June 2009. Samples from both cruises will be processed and analyzed. Other work during FY2009 will include ongoing research on the origin and evolution of marine mineral deposits, including research on rare metals needed for high technology and emerging technology industries. We will have three one-week sessions of beam time at the Stanford Linear Accelerator for XANES and EXAFS analyses, which will allow us to determine specifically how marine oxides acquire metals from seawater. Other products will include participation as chief scientific advisor to the DOS during the 16th session of the International Seabed Authority (ISA) in Kingston. The project chief will participate in a research cruise to the CNMI, if the ship time is approved by JAMSTEC. Liaison, subject expertise, and scientific communications will be maintained with marine minerals entities worldwide, such as the ISA, International Marine Minerals Society, university and government scientists, and government agencies, especially the DOS as a member of the US delegation to the ISA and member of the ECS Task Force, among others.
Map below shows main potential deep-water mineral deposit type and contained metals for each Pacific EEZ of U.S. affiliation.
Balaram, V., Banakar, V.K., Hein, J.R., and Rao, C.R.M., 2005. Concentrations of the platinum-group elements (PGE) and gold in manganese nodule samples and their precise determination. In: Törmänen, T.O. and Alapieti, T.T., eds., Extended Abstracts, 10th International Platinum Symposium, 8-11 August 2005, Oulu, Finland, p. 33-36.
Balaram, V., Mathur, R., Banakar, V.K., Hein, J.R., Rao, C.R.M., Rao, T.G., and Dasaram, B., 2006. Determination of the platinum-group elements (PGE) and gold (Au) in ferromanganese nodule reference samples by nickel sulfide fire-assay and Te-coprecipitation with ICP-MS. Indian Journal of Marine Sciences, v. 35, p. 7-16
Banakar, V.K., Hein, J.R., Rajani, R.P., and Chodankar, A.R., 2007. Platinum group elements in ferromanganese crusts of the Afanasiy-Nikitin Seamount, Equatorial Indian Ocean: Source and fractionation. Journal of Earth System Science, v.116, p. 3-13.
Basu, S., Stuart, F.M., Klemm, V., Korschinek, G., Knie, K., and Hein, J.R., 2006. Helium isotopes in ferromanganese crusts from the central Pacific Ocean. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, v. 70, p. 3996-4006
Chan, L.-H. and Hein, J.R., 2007. Lithium contents and isotopic compositions of ferromanganese deposits from the global oceans. Deep-Sea Research II, v. 54, p. 1147-1162, doi:10.1016/j.dsr2.2007.04.011
Embley, R.W., Chadwick, W.W., Jr., Baker, E.T., Butterfield, D.A., Resing, J.A., de Ronde, C.E.J., Tunnicliffe, V., Lupton, J.E., Juniper, S.K., Rubin, K.H., Stern, R.J., Lebon, G.T., Nakamura, K.-I., Merle, S.G., Hein, J.R., Wiens, D.A., and Tamura, Y., 2006. Long-term eruptive activity at a submarine arc volcano. Nature, v. 441, (7092), p. 494-497.
Hein, J.R., 2003. Polymetallic nodules and crusts. Encyclopedia of Oceanography and Marine Science, Moschovitis Publishing, New York.
Hein, J.R., 2003. Deep-Sea Mining. Encyclopedia of Oceanography and Marine Science, Moschovitis Publishing, New York.
Hein, J.R., 2003. Reviews: Phosphates: Geochemical, Geobiological, and Materials Importance; Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry, v. 48. Economic Geology, v. 98(5), p. 1053-1054.
Hein, J.R., 2004. Cobalt-rich ferromanganese crusts: Global distribution, composition, origin and research activities. In: Minerals Other than Polymetallic Nodules of the International Seabed Area; Proceedings of a Workshop held on 26-30 June 2000, International Seabed Authority, Kingston, Jamaica, volume 1, p. 188-256.
Hein, J.R., Clague, D.A., Koski, R.A., Embley, R.W., and Dunham, R.E., 2008. Metalliferous sediment and a silica-hematite deposit within the Blanco Fracture Zone, northeast Pacific. Marine Georesources and Geotechnology, v. 26 (4), p. 317-339, doi:10.1080/10641190802430986
Hein, J.R., Conrad, T.A., and Dunham, R.E., 2009. Seamount characteristics and mine-site model applied to exploration- and mining-lease-block selection for cobalt-rich ferromanganese crusts. Marine Georesources and Geotechnology, v. 27, p. 160-176, DOI:10.1080/10641190902852485
Hein, J.R., Koschinsky, A., and Halliday, A.N., 2003. Global occurrence of tellurium-rich ferromanganese oxyhydroxide crusts and a model for the enrichment of tellurium. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, v. 67 (6), p. 1117-1127.
Hein, J.R., Koschinsky, A., and McIntyre, B., 2005. The global enrichment of platinum group elements in marine ferromanganese crusts. In: Törmänen, T.O. and Alapieti, T.T., eds., Extended Abstracts, 10th International Platinum Symposium, 7-11 August 2005, Oulu, Finland, p. 98-101.
Hein, J.R., Koschinsky, A., and McIntyre, B.R., 2005. Mercury- and silver-rich ferromanganese-oxides, Southern California Borderland: Deposit model and environmental implications. Economic Geology, v. 100 (6), p. 1151-1168.
Hein, J.R., McIntyre, B.R., and Piper, D.Z., 2005. State of knowledge of marine mineral resources in Exclusive Economic Zones of Pacific islands of U.S. affiliation, excluding Hawaii. U.S. Geological Survey Circular 1286, 62 pp.
Hein, J.R., Schulz, M.S., Dunham, R.E., Stern, R.J., and Bloomer S.H., 2008. Diffuse flow hydrothermal manganese mineralization along the active Mariana and southern Izu-Bonin arc system, western Pacific. Journal of Geophysical Research, v. 113, B08S14, doi:10.1029/2007JB005432
Hein, J.R., Zierenberg, R.A., Maynard, J.B., and Hannington, M.D., 2007. Barite-forming environments along a rifted continental margin, southern California Borderland. Deep-Sea Research II, v. 54, p. 1327-1349, doi:10.1016/j.dsr2.2007.04.011
Klemm, V., Frank, M., Levasseur, S., Halliday, A.N., and Hein, J.R., 2008. Seawater osmium isotope evidence for a middle Miocene flood basalt event in ferromanganese crust records. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, v. 273., p. 175-183.
Klemm, V., Levasseur, S., Frank, M., Hein, J.R., and Halliday, A.N., 2005. Osmium isotope stratigraphy of a ferromanganese crust. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, v. 238, p. 42-48.
Koschinsky, A. and Hein, J.R., 2003. Uptake of elements from seawater by ferromanganese crusts: solid phase association and seawater speciation. Marine Geology, v. 198, p. 331-351.
Koschinsky, A., Hein, J.R., and Bau, M., 2004. The importance of surface oxidation on Mn and Fe oxides for the fractionation of Te and Se. Proceedings of the 11th International Symposium on Water-Rock Interaction, June-July, 2004, Saratoga Springs, NY, Taylor and Francis Group, London, p. 1323-1326.
Koschinsky, A., Hein, J.R., and Audroing, J., 2005. The enrichment of platinum and the fractionation of Pt from Pd in marine ferromanganese crusts. In: Törmänen, T.O. and Alapieti, T.T., eds., Extended Abstracts, 10th International Platinum Symposium, 7-11 August 2005, Oulu, Finland, p. 429-432.
Koski, R.A., and Hein, J.R., 2004. Stratiform barite deposits in the Roberts Mountains Allochthon, Nevada: A review of potential analogs in modern sea-floor environments. In: Bliss, J.D., Moyle, P.R., and Long, K.R. (eds.), Contributions to industrial minerals research: U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 2209-H, 17 pp; (http://pubs.usgs.gov/bul/b2209-h/).
Lee, T.-G., Hein, J.R., Lee, K., Moon, J.-W., and Ko, Y.-T., 2005. Sub-seafloor acoustic characterization of seamounts near the Ogasawara Fracture Zone in the western Pacific using chirp (3-7 kHz) subbottom profiles. Deep-Sea Research I, v. 52, p. 1932-1956.
Lee, T.-G., Lee, K., Hein, J.R., and Moon, J.-W., 2009. Geophysical investigation of seamounts near the Ogasawara Fracture Zone, western Pacific. Earth, Planets, and Space, v. 61 (3). P. 319-331.
Levasseur, S., Frank, M., Hein, J.R., and Halliday, A.N., 2004. The global variation in the iron isotope composition of marine hydrogenetic ferromanganese deposits: Implications for seawater chemistry? Earth and Planetary Science Letters, v. 224, p. 91-105.
Meyer, F.M., Halbach, P.E., Martens, P.N., Hein, J.R., and Scott, S., 2008. Deep-sea mining: Integrating geology, oceanography, and engineering. EOS, Transactions, American Geophysical Union, v. 89(39), 23 Sept. 23 2008, p. 365; full text at http://www.agu.org/eos_elec/
Muiños, S.B., Frank, M., Maden, C., Hein, J.R., van de Flierdt, T., Lebreiro, S.M., Gaspar, L., Monteiro, J.H., and Halliday, A.N., 2008. New constraints on the Pb and Nd isotopic evolution of NE Atlantic water masses. Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems, v. 9 (2), 12 February, Q02007, 18 pp., doi:10.1029/2007GC001766
Nielsen, S.G., Mar-Gerrison, S., Gannoun, A., LaRowe, D., Klemm,V., Halliday, A.N., Burton, K.W., and Hein, J.R., 2009. Thallium isotope evidence for a permanent increase in marine organic carbon export in the early Eocene. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, v. 278, p. 297-307 doi:10.1016/j.epsl.2008.12.010
Polgári, M., Szabó-Drubina, M., and Hein, J.R., 2003. Phosphogenesis in Jurassic black shale-hosted Mn-carbonate deposit, Úrkút-Eplény, Hungary: Investigations of archive sample drillcore Úrkút-136. Földtani Közlöny, v. 133/1, p. 37-48.
Polgári, M., Szabó-Drubina, M., Hein, J.R., and Szabó, Z., 2003. Analysis of an archive sample from the carbonatic manganese ore sequence, Eplény, Hungary. Földtani Közlöny, v. 133/1, p. 21-35.
Polgári, M., Szabó, Z, Szabó-Drubina, M., Hein, J.R., and Yeh, H.-W., 2005. A porous silica rock (“Tripoli”) in the footwall of the Jurassic Úrkút manganese deposit, Hungary: Composition, and origin through carbonate dissolution. Sedimentary Geology, v. 177, p. 87-96.
Rehkämper, M., Frank, M., Hein, J.R., Halliday, A., 2004. Cenozoic marine geochemistry of thallium deduced from isotopic studies of ferromanganese crusts and pelagic sediments. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, v. 219, p. 77-91.
Scott, S., Atmanand, M.A., Batchelor, D., Finkl, C., Garnett, R., Goodden, R., Hein, J., Heydon, D., Hobbs, C., Morgan, C., Rona, P., and Surawardi, N., 2008. Mineral Deposits in the sea: Second report of the ECOR (Engineering Committee on Oceanic Resources) Panel on Marine Mining, London, October 2008, 36 pp. (http://oceanicresources-ecor.amc.edu.au)
Scott, S., Atmanand, M.A., Hein, J., Heydon, D., and Morgan, C., 2006. Mineral Deposits in the sea: A future resource. Report of the ECOR (Engineering Committee on Oceanic Resources) Specialist Panel on Marine Mining, London, 23 March, 2006,13 pp, http://www.rina.org.uk/rfiles/ECOR/06MarineMiningPanelReport.pdf
van de Flierdt, T., Frank, M., Halliday, A.N., Hein, J.R., Hattendorf, B., Günther, D., and Kubik, P., 2003. Lead isotopes in North Pacific deep water--implications for past changes in input sources and circulation patterns. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, v. 209, p. 149-164.
van de Flierdt, T., Frank, M., Halliday, A.N., Hein, J.R., Hattendorf, B., Günther, D., and Kubik, P.W., 2004. Deep and bottom water export from the Southern Ocean to the Pacific over the past 38 million years. Paleoceanography, 19, PA1020, doi:10.1029/2003PA000923
van de Flierdt, T., Frank, M., Halliday, A.N., Hein, J.R., Hattendorf, B., Günther, D., and Kubik, P.W., 2004. Tracing the history of submarine hydrothermal inputs and the significance of hydrothermal hafnium for the seawater budgeta combined Pb-Hf-Nd isotope approach. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, v. 222, p. 259-273.
van de Flierdt, T., Frank, M., Lee, D.-C., Halliday, A.N., Reynolds, B.C., and Hein, J.R., 2004. New constraints on the sources and behavior of neodymium and hafnium in seawater from Pacific Ocean ferromanganese crusts. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, v. 68, p. 3827-3843.
REPORTS SUBMITTED OR ACCEPTED FOR PUBLICATIONS
Burton, K. W., Gannoun, A., Allegre, C. J., and Hein, J. R., Continental weathering, climate change and the marine osmium isotope record over the Cenozoic, Nature
Hein, J.R., Phosphate islands, University of California Press (Director's Approval)
Hein, J.R., Caroline Islands, University of California Press (Director's Approval)
PRESENTATIONS WITH PUBLISHED ABSTRACTS
Bolz, V., Levasseur, S., Frank, M., Hein, J., and Halliday, A., 2004. Osmium isotope stratigraphy of ferromanganese crusts. Abstracts, December AGU, San Francisco, EOS, Transactions of the American Geophysical Union Supplement, 85(47), Fall Meeting, San Francisco, abstract PP33A-0912.
Banakar, V.K., Rajani, R.P., and Hein, J.R., 2005. Genesis and growth history of ferromanganese encrustations from Afanasiy-Nikitin Seamounts in the equatorial India Ocean. Abstracts and Program, 35th Underwater Mining Institute, 1-6 November, Monterey, California, p. (in press).
Chadwick, W.W., Embley, R.W., de Ronde, C., Stern, R.J., Hein, J., Merle, S.G., and Ristau, S., 2004. The geologic setting of hydrothermal vents at Mariana arc submarine volcanoes: High-resolution bathymetry and ROV observations. Abstracts, December AGU, San Francisco, EOS, Transactions of the American Geophysical Union Supplement, 85(47), Fall Meeting, San Francisco, abstract V43F-06.
Chan, L.H. and Hein, J.R., 2004. Lithium contents and isotopes of ferromanganese deposits from the global oceans. Abstracts, December AGU, San Francisco, EOS, Transactions of the American Geophysical Union Supplement, v. 85(47), Fall Meeting, San Francisco, abstract OS21A-1206.
de Ronde, C.E.J., Hein, J.R., Embley, R.W., and Stern, R.J., 2004. Hydrothermal mineralization along the volcanically active Mariana arc. Abstracts, December AGU, San Francisco, EOS, Transactions of the American Geophysical Union, on CD.
Embley, R.W., Baker, E.T., Butterfield, D., Chadwick, W.W., Jr., de Ronde, C., Dower, J., Evans, L., Hein, J., Juniper, K., Lebon, G., Lupton, J.E., Merle, S., Metaxas, A., Nakamura, K., Resing, J.E., Roe, K., Stern, R., Tunnicliffe, V., 2004. Active volcanic and hydrothermal processes at NW Rota-1 submarine volcano: Mariana subduction zone. Abstracts, December AGU, San Francisco, EOS, Transactions of the American Geophysical Union Supplement, Fall Meeting, San Francisco, v. 85 (47), abst. V43F-05.
Hein, J.R., McIntyre, B.R., and Staudigel, H., 2004. Geographic and oceanographic controls on Fe-Mn crust chemistry along a NW-SE transect of the equatorial Pacific. Abstracts with Program of the 32nd International Geological Congress, 20-28 August, Florence Italy, part 2, p. 1197-1198.
Hein, J.R., McIntyre, B., and Staudigel, H., 2003. Latitudinal changes in Fe-Mn oxide crust chemistry: Detailed NW-SE transect of the Equatorial Pacific, Marshall Islands to Samoa. Proceedings of 33rd Underwater Mining Institute Conference, Cheju I., Korea, October 2003, extended abstract, p. 29-31.
Hein, J.R., Clague, D.A., McIntyre, B.R., Paduan, J., and Davis, A.S., 2004. Formation of Fe-Mn crusts under conditions of strong upwelling at a continental margin: Rodriguez Seamount, offshore central California. Proceedings of the 34th Underwater Mining Institute, September 2003, London, p. 41-43.
Horner, T.J., Schönbächler, M., Rehkämper, M., Williams, H., Nielsen, S.G., Halliday, A.N., and Hein, J.R., 2008. Ferromanganese crusts as archives of deep-water Cd isotope compositions. Abstracts, 18th Goldschmidt Conference, VanCouver, Canada. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, v. 72 (12S), p A392.
Koschinsky, A. and Hein, J.R., 2003. Scavenging and fractionation of selenium and tellurium on Mn oxides and Fe oxyhydroxide. Abstracts and Program, German Mineralogical Society and Geological Society Annual Meeting, Sept., 2003; European Journal of Mineralogy, v. 16 (1), p. 106.
Koski, R.A. and Hein, J.R., 2003. Sea-floor barite deposits at active continental margins: Analogues for stratiform deposits in Nevada? 39th Industrial Minerals Forum, Sparks, Nevada, May 2003.
Levasseur, S., Frank, M., Hein, J., and Halliday, A.N., 2003. Iron isotope variations in marine ferromanganese deposits. EGS-AGU-EUG Joint Assembly, Nice, France, April 2003.
Muiños, S.B., Frank, M., Maden, M.C., Hein, J.R., Lebreiro, S.M., Gaspar, L., Monteiro, J.H., van de Flierdt, T., and Halliday, A.N., 2007. New constraints on the Pb and Nd isotopic evolution of NE Atlantic water masses. International Conference and 97th Annual Meeting of the Geologische Vereinigung, The Oceans in the Earth System. Bremen, Germany, 1-5 October 2007, Terra Nostra, v. 2007/1-2, p. 170.
Nielsen, S., Mar-Gerrison, S., LaRowe, D., Klemm,V., Halliday, A., Burton, K., and Hein, J., 2008. Thallium isotopes in ferromanganese crusts as a proxy for marine productivity. EOS Transactions, AGU, 89(53), Fall Meeting Supplement, Abstract PP33C-1593.
Nielsen, S.G., Gannoun, A., Burton, K.W., Halliday, A.N., and Hein, J.R., 2009. Miocene Os and Tl isotopes in the Indian Ocean: Implications for Antarctic water export and the residence time of Os. Goldschmidt Conference, June 21-26, Davos, Switzerland, Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, v. 73 (13), Supplement 1, p. A942.
Nielsen, S.G., Klemm, V., LaRowe, D., Halliday, A.N., and Hein, J.R., 2007. Systematic temporal thallium isotope variations in a 72 Ma old Fe-Mn crusts: A proxy for changes in ocean chemistry? EOS Transactions, AGU, 88(52), Fall Meeting Supplement, Abstract PP21A-08.
Polgári, M., Hein, J.R., Tóth, M., Vigh, T., and Bíró, L., 2007. Did hydrothermal fluids contribute to the huge Urkut carbonate ore body? Goldschmidt Conference, 19-24 August 2007, Cologne, Germany, Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, v. 71 (15S), p. A801.
Rehkämper, M., Nielsen, S., Frank, M., Hein, J. and Halliday, A., 2003. Cenozoic marine geochemistry of thallium deduced from isotopic studies of ferromanganese crusts. EGS-AGU-EUG Joint Assembly, Nice, France, April 2003.
Stakes, D., Perfit, M., Wheat, C.G., Delong, E., Ramirez, T., Koski, R.A., and Hein, J.R., 2003. Evidence of off-Axis volcanism and hydrothermal venting along the Cleft segment of the southern Juan de Fuca Ridge. EGS-AGU-EUG Joint Assembly, Nice, France, April 2003.
Stern, R.J., Basu, N., Kohut, E., Hein, J., and Embley, R.W., 2004. Petrology and geochemistry of igneous rocks collected in association with ROV investigations of three hydrothermal sites in the Mariana arc: NW Rota-1, E Diamonte, and NW Eifuku. Abstracts, December AGU, San Francisco, EOS, Transactions of the American Geophysical Union, on CD.
van de Flierdt, T., Frank, M., Lee, D.-C., Halliday, A.N., Reynolds, B.C., and Hein, J.R., 2004. New constraints on sources and budgets of Nd and Hf in Pacific seawater. American Geophysical Union, Ocean Sciences Meeting, January 2004, Portland, OR.
van de Flierdt, T., Frank, M., Halliday, A.N., Hattendorf, B., Günter, D., Kubik, P.W., and Hein, J.R., 2004. Tracing the history of submarine hydrothermal inputs using Pb isotopes from ferromanganese crusts. Goldschmidt Conference, 5-11 June 2004, Copenhagen, Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, v. 68, p. A261.
Williams, H.M., Nielsen, S.G., Burton, K.W., Hein, J.R., Siebert, C., and Halliday, A.N., 2009. Temperal variations in the iron isotopic compositions of Pacific hydrogenetic Fe-Mn crusts. Goldschmidt Conference, June 21-26, Davos, Switzerland, Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, v. 73 (13), Supplement 1, p. A1445.
Yeh, H.-W., Chan, L.-H., and Hein, J.R., 2004. The meaning of 87Sr/86Sr ages of authigenic seamount phosphorite. Abstracts, December AGU, San Francisco, EOS, Transactions of the American Geophysical Union, on CD.