Pacific Coastal & Marine Science Center
Submarine Ground-water Discharge
An Autonomous, Electromagnetic Seepage Meter to Study Coastal Groundwater/Surface-water Exchange
USGS Open File Report 2004-1369
Five-day time series of (A) bottom water 222Rn activities (dpm/L), (B) bidirectional electromagnetic (EM) seepage meter results (cm/d); the zero discharge line is shown for reference, and (C) bottom water conductivities (mS/cm) collected from the top of a EM seepage meter dome. The reference line in (C) denotes the mean conductivity (40.7 mS/cm) of the bottom waters.