The Pacific Coastal and Marine Science Center of the USGS studies the coasts of the western United States, including Alaska and Hawai`i. Team scientists conduct research, monitor processes, and develop information about coastal and marine geologic hazards, environmental conditions, habitats, and energy and mineral resources. This information helps managers at all levels of government and in the private sector make informed decisions about the use and protection of national coastal and ocean resources.
The Pacific Coastal and Marine Science Center consists of about 100 people located in Santa Cruz and Menlo Park, California. Work and staff are integrated with the other USGS Coastal and Marine Geology centers in Woods Hole, Massachusetts, and St. Petersburg, Florida.
Read about the hottest research news and information in the USGS monthly newsletter Sound Waves.
Sea-cliff collapse and loss of beach sand are among the coastal-erosion problems being studied by team scientists. Field measurements—including repeated high-resolution lidar (light detection and ranging) surveys of coastal cliffs, surf-zone current measurements, and detailed mapping of beach topography and nearshore bathymetry—are combined with conceptual and numerical models in order to quantify short- and long-term coastal changes, develop predictive models, and assist regional coastal-zone and sediment management. Partners include local, State, and Federal agencies and academic institutions.
Above, Andrew Schwartz and Dan Hanes maneuver a current profiler for a study of surf-zone hydrodynamics at Ocean Beach, on the west side of San Francisco, California. Beach erosion has been a continuing problem in this area, and this fieldwork is part of an effort to document, analyze, and simulate the processes that control sand transport and sedimentation patterns.
For more information, please visit our PCMSC Coastal Processes Studies web pages.
Above, Ann Gibbs (inset) boards a float plane in which she and Bruce Richmond collected aerial imagery along hundreds of kilometers of Alaska's North Slope coastline (shown) as part of the USGS National Assessment of Shoreline Change project.
Guy Gelfenbaum measures coastal subsidence along Sumatra's northwest coast caused by the December 2004 earthquake that triggered a devastating tsunami in the Indian Ocean. Submergence of the tree roots indicates that the land here subsided 1 to 2 meters during the earthquake; the trees were snapped off by the tsunami.
USGS researchers are working with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and other agencies to identify places where tsunamis might be triggered, including offshore fault zones and areas prone to submarine landslides. USGS staff have had a prominent role in documenting the geologic impacts of recent tsunamis, including the tragic 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami. This documentation is being used to improve interpretation of ancient tsunami deposits and to aid in developing local and national tsunami-hazard assessments.
For more information, please visit our Tsunamis & Earthquakes web site.
Urbanization around Puget Sound, Washington, has caused declines in fish and wildlife, water quality, and ecosystem health. As part of the Puget Sound Nearshore Ecosystem Restoration Project—a cooperative effort involving Federal, State, and local agencies—USGS scientists are developing information on the sound’s physical, chemical, and biological processes. Work focuses on the effects of urbanization on nearshore ecosystems, the restoration of large river deltas, and the ecosystem impacts of dam removal (see below).
For more information, please visit our Coastal Habitats in Puget Sound web site.
The USGS is mapping the locations, geometry, slip rates, and earthquake-recurrence intervals of active faults offshore California and the Pacific Northwest—information essential for seismic-hazard assessment and mitigation. In selected coastal zones, the USGS is also mapping soil and rock properties that affect earthquake-induced ground motions in order to assess the potential for liquefaction and landslides.
For more information, please visit our project site, Probabilistic Forecasting of Earthquakes, Tsunamis, and Earthquake Effects in the Coastal Zone.
The California Seafloor Mapping Program (CSMP) is a cooperative program to create a comprehensive coastal/marine geologic and habitat base map series for all of California's State waters. The California Ocean Protection Council (COPC) authorized funds to establish the CSMP in 2007 (COPC, 2007) and assembled a team of experts from state and federal agencies, academia, and private industry to develop the best approach to mapping and classifying coastal and marine geologic habitats, while at the same time updating all nautical charts. Initiated in 2008, the CSMP has collected bathymetry (underwater topography) and backscatter data (providing insight into the geologic makeup of the seafloor) that are being turned into habitat and geologic base maps for all of California's State Waters (mean high water line out to three nautical miles). Although the CSMP was originally developed to support the design and monitoring of marine reserves through the Marine Life Protection Act [California Department of Fish and Wildlife (CDFW), 2007], accurate statewide mapping of the seafloor has also contributed significantly to these efforts:
Data collected during this project reveal the seafloor offshore of the California coast in unprecedented detail (for example, see the movie below) and provide an ecosystem context for the effective management of this precious marine resource.
For more information, please visit the California Seafloor Mapping Program web site.
Sea-floor characteristics affect the distribution, abundance, and behavior of bottom-dwelling fish and shellfish of commercial and recreational value. USGS scientists are mapping benthic (sea-floor) habitats in both Federal and State waters to better understand seabed framework and dynamics and to support fisheries management efforts.
For more information, please visit:
Land-derived sediment (brown) drifts over coral reefs off the Island of Maui, Hawai`i. USGS scientists are studying the effects of sediment and pollutants on coral-reef health. Inset: Mike Torresan and Charlene Parsons collect water sample for analysis of suspended sediment.
USGS scientists are mapping the distribution and condition of coral reefs as part of a national effort to understand and protect these fragile environments. A special focus is on the influence of land-derived sediments and contaminants on reef health. Projects are underway in Hawai`i and Guam in cooperation with the National Park Service, the University of Hawai`i, and others.
For more information, please visit our USGS Pacific Coral Reefs Website.
The Elwha River Restoration Project will reconnect the water, salmon and sediment of a pristine river and coast of the Olympic Peninsula of Washington. Coordinated by the National Park Service, restoration of the Elwha River will include the removal of two large dams that have blocked salmon and sediment passage for almost 100 years. Dam removal will begin in September 2011 and last approximately 2.5 years. Following dam removal, salmon will be able to spawn in pristine river habitats of the Olympic National Park, and sediment will once again flow down the river and to the eroding shoreline.
The role of the U.S. Geological Survey in this restoration project is to provide scientific monitoring and analyses of the fish, waters and sediment of this historic event. This work is coordinated with the Olympic National Park, Lower Elwha Klallam Tribe, the Bureau of Reclamation, the National Atmospheric and Oceanic Administration, and other local and state entities.
For more information, please visit our website, USGS Science to Support the Elwha River Restoration Project.
See also, these official USGS Publications: