USGS - science for a changing world

Pacific Coastal and Marine Science Center

Global Ocean Minerals

Publications

Balaram, V., Banakar, V.K., Hein, J.R., and Rao, C.R.M., 2005.  Concentrations of the platinum-group elements (PGE) and gold in manganese nodule samples and their precise determination. In: Törmänen, T.O. and Alapieti, T.T., eds., Extended Abstracts, 10th International Platinum Symposium, 8-11 August 2005, Oulu, Finland, p. 33-36.

Balaram, V., Mathur, R., Banakar, V.K., Hein, J.R., Rao, C.R.M., Rao, T.G., and Dasaram, B., 2006. Determination of the platinum-group elements (PGE) and gold (Au) in ferromanganese nodule reference samples by nickel sulfide fire-assay and Te-coprecipitation with ICP-MS. Indian Journal of Marine Sciences, v. 35, p. 7-16

Banakar, V.K., Hein, J.R., Rajani, R.P., and Chodankar, A.R., 2007. Platinum group elements in ferromanganese crusts of the Afanasiy-Nikitin Seamount, Equatorial Indian Ocean: Source and fractionation. Journal of Earth System Science, v.116, p. 3-13.

Basu, S., Stuart, F.M., Klemm, V., Korschinek, G., Knie, K., and Hein, J.R., 2006. Helium isotopes in ferromanganese crusts from the central Pacific Ocean. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, v. 70, p. 3996-4006.

Bau, M., Schmidt, K., Koschinsky, A., Hein, J., Kuhn, T., Usui, A., 2014. Discriminating between different genetic types of marine ferro-manganese crusts and nodules based on rare earth elements and yttrium. Chemical Geology, v. 381, pp. 1–9, doi: 10.1016/j.chemgeo.2014.05.004.

Chan, L.-H. and Hein, J.R., 2007. Lithium contents and isotopic compositions of ferromanganese deposits from the global oceans. Deep-Sea Research II, v. 54, p. 1147-1162, doi:10.1016/j.dsr2.2007.04.011.

Clague, D., Lundsten, L., Hein, J., Paduan, J., and Davis, A., 2010. Spotlight 6; Davidson Seamount. Oceanography, v. 23 no. 1, pp. 126–127, doi: 10.5670/oceanog.2010.78.

Conrad, J.E., Hein, J.R., Chaudhuri, A.K., Patranabis-Deb, S., Mukhopadhyay, J., Deb, G.K., Beukes, N.J., 2011. Constraints on the development of Proterozoic basins in central India from 40Ar/39Ar analysis of authigenic glauconitic minerals. Geological Society of America Bulletin, v. 123 no. 1-2, pp. 158–167, doi: 10.1130/B30083.1.

Conrad, T., Hein, J.R., Paytan, A., and Clague, D.A., 2017. Formation of Fe-Mn crusts within a continental margin environment. Ore Geology Reviews, v. 87, pp. 25–40, doi: 10.1016/j.oregeorev.2016.09.010.

Dausmann, V., Frank, M., Siebert, C., Christl, M., and Hein, J.R., 2015. The evolution of climatically driven weathering inputs into the western Arctic Ocean since the late Miocene: Radiogenic isotope evidence. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, v. 419, pp. 111–124, doi: 10.1016/j.epsl.2015.03.007.

Du, D., Wang, C., Du, X., Yan, S., Ren, X., Shi, X., and Hein, J.R., 2017. Distance-gradient-based variogram and Kriging to evaluate cobalt-rich crust deposits on seamounts. Ore Geology Reviews, v. 84, pp. 218–227, doi: 10.1016/j.oregeorev.2016.12.028.

Embley, R.W., Chadwick, W.W., Jr., Baker, E.T., Butterfield, D.A., Resing, J.A., de Ronde, C.E.J., Tunnicliffe, V., Lupton, J.E., Juniper, S.K., Rubin, K.H., Stern, R.J., Lebon, G.T., Nakamura, K.-I., Merle, S.G., Hein, J.R., Wiens, D.A., and Tamura, Y., 2006. Long-term eruptive activity at a submarine arc volcano. Nature, v. 441, (7092), p. 494-497.

González, F.J., Somoza, L., Hein, J.R., Medialdea, T., León, R., Urgorri, V., Reyes, J., and Martín-Rubí, J.A., 2016. Phosphorites, Co-rich Mn nodules, and Fe-Mn crusts from Galicia Bank, NE Atlantic: Reflections of Cenozoic tectonics and paleoceanography. Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems, v. 17 no. 2, pp. 346–374, doi: 10.1002/2015gc005861, plus supplementary information (pdf).

Hein, J.R., 2003. Polymetallic nodules and crusts.  Encyclopedia of Oceanography and Marine Science, Moschovitis Publishing, New York.

Hein, J.R., 2003. Deep-Sea Mining.  Encyclopedia of Oceanography and Marine Science, Moschovitis Publishing, New York.

Hein, J.R., 2003. Reviews: Phosphates: Geochemical, Geobiological, and Materials Importance; Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry, v. 48.  Economic Geology, v. 98(5), p. 1053-1054.

Hein, J.R., 2004.  Cobalt-rich ferromanganese crusts:  Global distribution, composition, origin and research activities. In: Minerals Other than Polymetallic Nodules of the International Seabed Area; Proceedings of a Workshop held on 26-30 June 2000, International Seabed Authority, Kingston, Jamaica, volume 1, p. 188-256.

Hein, J.R., 2016. Cobalt-rich Manganese Crusts. In, Harff, J., Meschede, M., Petersen, S., and Thiede, Eds., Encyclopedia of Marine Geosciences. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp. 113–117, doi: 10.1007/978-94-007-6238-1_25.

Hein, J.R., 2016. Manganese Nodules. In, Harff, J., Meschede, M., Petersen, S., and Thiede, J., Eds., Encyclopedia of Marine Geosciences. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp. 408-412, doi: 10.1007/978-94-007-6238-1_26.

Hein, J.R., and Cherkashov, G.A., Eds., 2017. Marine mineral deposits: New resources for base, precious, and critical metals. Ore Geology Reviews, v. 87, 192pp., URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/01691368/87.

Hein, J.R., and Cherkashov, G.A., 2017. Preface for Ore Geology Reviews Special Issue: Marine mineral deposits: New resources for base, precious, and critical metals. Ore Geology Reviews, v. 87, pp. 1-2, doi: 10.1016/j.oregeorev.2017.01.005.

Hein, J.R., Clague, D.A., Koski, R.A., Embley, R.W., and Dunham, R.E., 2008. Metalliferous sediment and a silica-hematite deposit within the Blanco Fracture Zone, northeast Pacific. Marine Georesources and Geotechnology, v. 26 (4), p. 317-339, doi: 10.1080/10641190802430986.

Hein, J.R., Conrad, T.A., and Dunham, R.E., 2009. Seamount characteristics and mine-site model applied to exploration- and mining-lease-block selection for cobalt-rich ferromanganese crusts. Marine Georesources and Geotechnology, v. 27, p. 160-176, doi: 10.1080/10641190902852485.

Hein, J.R., Conrad, T.A., Frank, M., Christl, M., Sager, W.W., 2012. Copper-nickel-rich, amalgamated ferromanganese crust-nodule deposits from Shatsky Rise, NW Pacific: SHATSKY RISE Cu-RICH Fe-Mn CRUSTS. Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems, v. 13 no. 10, doi: 10.1029/2012gc004286.

Hein, J.R., Conrad, T., Mizell, K., Banakar, V.K., Frey, F.A., and Sager, W.W., 2016. Controls on ferromanganese crust composition and reconnaissance resource potential, Ninetyeast Ridge, Indian Ocean. Deep Sea Research Part I: Oceanographic Research Papers, v. 110, doi: 10.1016/j.dsr.2015.11.006

Hein, J., Conrad, T., Staudigel, H., 2010. Seamount Mineral Deposits: A Source of Rare Metals for High-Technology Industries. Oceanography, v. 23 no. 01, pp. 184–189, doi: 10.5670/oceanog.2010.70.

Hein, J.R., de Ronde, C.E.J., Koski, R.A., Ditchburn, R.G., Mizell, K., Tamura, Y., Stern, R.J., Conrad, T.A., Ishizuka, O., Leybourne, M.I., 2014. Layered Hydrothermal Barite-Sulfide Mound Field, East Diamante Caldera, Mariana Volcanic Arc. Economic Geology, v. 109 no. 8, pp. 2179–2206, doi: 10.2113/econgeo.109.8.2179.

Hein, J.R., and Koschinsky, A., 2014. Deep-Ocean Ferromanganese Crusts and Nodules, Treatise on Geochemistry. Elsevier, pp. 273–291, doi: 10.1016/B978-0-08-095975-7.01111-6.

Hein, J.R., Koschinsky, A., and Halliday, A.N., 2003.  Global occurrence of tellurium-rich ferromanganese oxyhydroxide crusts and a model for the enrichment of tellurium.  Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, v. 67 (6), p. 1117-1127.

Hein, J.R., Koschinsky, A., and McIntyre, B., 2005.  The global enrichment of platinum group elements in marine ferromanganese crusts.  In: Törmänen, T.O. and Alapieti, T.T., eds., Extended Abstracts, 10th International Platinum Symposium, 7-11 August 2005, Oulu, Finland, p. 98-101.

Hein, J.R., Koschinsky, A., and McIntyre, B.R., 2005. Mercury- and silver-rich ferromanganese-oxides, Southern California Borderland: Deposit model and environmental implications. Economic Geology, v. 100 (6), p. 1151-1168.

Hein, J.R., Koschinsky, A., Mikesell, M., Mizell, K., Glenn, C.R., and Wood, R., 2016. Marine Phosphorites as Potential Resources for Heavy Rare Earth Elements and Yttrium. Minerals, v. 6 no. 3, 88 p., doi: 10.3390/min6030088, download PDF.

Hein, J.R., McIntyre, B.R., and Piper, D.Z., 2005. State of knowledge of marine mineral resources in Exclusive Economic Zones of Pacific islands of U.S. affiliation, excluding Hawaii. U.S. Geological Survey Circular 1286, 62 pp.

Hein, J.R., and Mizell, K., 2015. Ocean Minerals. In Smith, H.D., Suarez de Vivero, J.L., and Agardy, T. (eds), Routledge Handbook of Ocean Resources and Management, Chapter 20, Routledge, Taylor and Francis Group, UK, p. 296-309. https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70046852

Hein, J.R., Mizell, K., Barnard, P.L., 2013. Sand sources and transport pathways for the San Francisco Bay coastal system, based on X-ray diffraction mineralogy. Marine Geology, v. 345, pp. 154–169, doi: 10.1016/j.margeo.2013.04.003.

Hein, J.R., Mizell, K., Koschinsky, A., and Conrad, T.A., 2013. Deep-ocean mineral deposits as a source of critical metals for high- and green-technology applications. Comparison with land-based resources: Ore Geology Reviews, v. 51, pp. 1–14, doi: 10.1016/j.oregeorev.2012.12.001.

Hein, J.R., and Petersen, S., 2013. The Geology of Manganese Nodules. In, Baker, E., and Beaudoin, Y., Eds., Deep Sea Minerals: Manganese Nodules, a physical, biological, environmental, and technical review v. 1B. Secretariat of the Pacific Community, 7–18 p., download PDF.

Hein, J.R., Reid, J.A., Conrad, T.A., Dunham, R.E., Clague, D.A., Schulz, M.S., and Davis, A.S., 2010. Seamounts and ferromanganese crusts within and near the U.S. EEZ off California—Data for RV Farnella cruise F7-87-SC. U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2010-1069, 124 p., URL: http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2010/1069/.

Hein, J.R., Schulz, M.S., Dunham, R.E., Stern, R.J., and Bloomer S.H., 2008. Diffuse flow hydrothermal manganese mineralization along the active Mariana and southern Izu-Bonin arc system, western Pacific. Journal of Geophysical Research, v. 113, B08S14, doi: 10.1029/2007JB005432.

Hein, J.R., Spinardi, F., Okamoto, N., Mizell, K., Thorburn, D., and Tawake, A., 2015. Critical metals in manganese nodules from the Cook Islands EEZ, abundances and distributions. Ore Geology Reviews, v. 68, pp. 97–116, doi: 10.1016/j.oregeorev.2014.12.011.

Hein, J.R., Zierenberg, R.A., Maynard, J.B., and Hannington, M.D., 2007. Barite-forming environments along a rifted continental margin, southern California Borderland. Deep-Sea Research II, v. 54, p. 1327-1349, doi: 10.1016/j.dsr2.2007.04.011.

Horner, T.J., Williams, H.M., Hein, J.R., Saito, M.A., Burton, K.W., Halliday, A.N., Nielsen, S.G., 2015. Persistence of deeply sourced iron in the Pacific Ocean. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, v. 112 no. 5, pp. 1292–1297, doi: 10.1073/pnas.1420188112.

Klemm, V., Frank, M., Levasseur, S., Halliday, A.N., and Hein, J.R., 2008. Seawater osmium isotope evidence for a middle Miocene flood basalt event in ferromanganese crust records. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, v. 273., p. 175-183.

Klemm, V., Levasseur, S., Frank, M., Hein, J.R., and Halliday, A.N., 2005. Osmium isotope stratigraphy of a ferromanganese crust. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, v. 238, p. 42-48.

Konstantinova, N., Cherkashov, G., Hein, J.R., Mirão, J., Dias, L., Madureira, P., Kuznetsov, V., and Maksimov, F., 2016. Composition and characteristics of the ferromanganese crusts from the western Arctic Ocean. Ore Geology Reviews, In press, doi: 10.1016/j.oregeorev.2016.09.011.

Koschinsky, A., and Hein, J.R., 2017. Marine Ferromanganese Encrustations: Archives of Changing Oceans. Elements, v. 13 no. 3, pp. 177–182, doi: 10.2113/gselements.13.3.177.

Koschinsky, A. and Hein, J.R., 2003.  Uptake of elements from seawater by ferromanganese crusts:  solid phase association and seawater speciation.  Marine Geology, v. 198, p. 331-351.

Koschinsky, A., Hein, J.R., and Bau, M., 2004. The importance of surface oxidation on Mn and Fe oxides for the fractionation of Te and Se. Proceedings of the 11th International Symposium on Water-Rock Interaction, June-July, 2004, Saratoga Springs, NY, Taylor and Francis Group, London, p. 1323-1326. 

Koschinsky, A., Hein, J.R., and Audroing, J., 2005.  The enrichment of platinum and the fractionation of Pt from Pd in marine ferromanganese crusts. In: Törmänen, T.O. and Alapieti, T.T., eds., Extended Abstracts,  10th International Platinum Symposium, 7-11 August 2005, Oulu, Finland, p. 429-432.

Koski, R.A., and Hein, J.R., 2004. Stratiform barite deposits in the Roberts Mountains Allochthon, Nevada: A review of potential analogs in modern sea-floor environments.  In:  Bliss, J.D., Moyle, P.R., and Long, K.R. (eds.), Contributions to industrial minerals research: U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 2209-H, 17 pp; (http://pubs.usgs.gov/bul/b2209-h/).

Lee, T.-G., Hein, J.R., Lee, K., Moon, J.-W., and Ko, Y.-T., 2005.  Sub-seafloor acoustic characterization of seamounts near the Ogasawara Fracture Zone in the western Pacific using chirp (3-7 kHz) subbottom profiles.  Deep-Sea Research I, v. 52, p. 1932-1956. 

Lee, T.-G., Lee, K., Hein, J.R., and Moon, J.-W., 2009. Geophysical investigation of seamounts near the Ogasawara Fracture Zone, western Pacific. Earth, Planets, and Space, v. 61 (3). P. 319-331.

Levasseur, S., Frank, M., Hein, J.R., and Halliday, A.N., 2004.  The global variation in the iron isotope composition of marine hydrogenetic ferromanganese deposits: Implications for seawater chemistry?  Earth and Planetary Science Letters, v. 224, p. 91-105.

Little, S.H., Sherman, D.M., Vance, D., Hein, J.R., 2014. Molecular controls on Cu and Zn isotopic fractionation in Fe-Mn crusts. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, v. 396, pp. 213–222, doi: 10.1016/j.epsl.2014.04.021.

Meyer, F.M., Halbach, P.E., Martens, P.N., Hein, J.R., and Scott, S., 2008. Deep-sea mining: Integrating geology, oceanography, and engineering. EOS, Transactions, American Geophysical Union, v. 89(39), 23 Sept. 23 2008, p. 365; full text at http://www.agu.org/eos_elec/

Molnár, Z., Polgári, M., Hein, J.R., Józsa, S., Fekete, J., Gyollai, I., Fintor, K., Bíró, L., Szabó, M., Rapi, S., Forgó, P., Vigh, T., 2016. Fe-Mn oxide indications in the feeder and mound zone of the Jurassic Mn-carbonate ore deposit, Úrkút, Hungary. Ore Geology Reviews, In press, doi: 10.1016/j.oregeorev.2016.11.005.

Muiños, S.B., Frank, M., Maden, C., Hein, J.R., van de Flierdt, T., Lebreiro, S.M., Gaspar, L., Monteiro, J.H., and Halliday, A.N., 2008. New constraints on the Pb and Nd isotopic evolution of NE Atlantic water masses. Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems, v. 9 (2), 12 February, Q02007, 18 pp., doi: 10.1029/2007GC001766.

Nielsen, S.G., Mar-Gerrison, S., Gannoun, A., LaRowe, D., Klemm, V., Halliday, A.N., Burton, K.W., and Hein, J.R., 2009. Thallium isotope evidence for a permanent increase in marine organic carbon export in the early Eocene. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, v. 278, p. 297-307, doi: 10.1016/j.epsl.2008.12.010.

Petersen, S., and Hein, J.R., 2013. The Geology of Sea-Floor Massive Sulphides. In, Baker, E., and Beaudoin, Y., Eds., Deep Sea Minerals: Sea-Floor Massive Sulphides; A physical, biological, environmental, and technical review v. 1A. Secretariat of the Pacific Community, 7–18 p., download PDF.

Petersen, S., Krätschell, A., Augustin, N., Jamieson, J., Hein, J.R., and Hannington, M.D., 2016. News from the seabed – Geological characteristics and resource potential of deep-sea mineral resources. Marine Policy, v. 70, pp. 175–187, doi: 10.1016/j.marpol.2016.03.012.

Polgári, M., Hein, J.R., Bíró, L., Gyollai, I., Németh, T., Csanád, S., Fekete, J., Schwark, L., Pál-Molnár, E., Hámor-Vidó, M., and Vigh, T., 2016. Mineral and chemostratigraphy of a Toarcian black shale hosting Mn-carbonate microbialites (Úrkút, Hungary). Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, doi: 10.1016/j.palaeo.2016.06.030.

Polgári, M., Hein, J.R., Tóth, M., Brukner-Wein, A., Vigh, T., Biró, L., Cserháti, C., 2010. Genesis of a regionally widespread celadonitic chert-ironstone bed overlying Upper Lias manganese deposits, Hungary. Journal of the Geological Society, v. 167 no. 2, pp. 313–328, doi: 10.1144/0016-76492008-132.

Polgári, M., Hein, J.R., Tóth, A.L., Pál-Molnár, E., Vigh, T., Bíró, L., and Fintor, K., 2012. Microbial action formed Jurassic Mn-carbonate ore deposit in only a few hundred years (Urkut, Hungary). Geology, v. 40 no. 10, pp. 903–906, doi: 10.1130/G33304.1.

Polgári, M., Hein, J.R., Vigh, T., Szabó-Drubina, M., Fórizs, I., Bíró, L., Müller, A., Tóth, A.L., 2012. Microbial processes and the origin of the Úrkút manganese deposit, Hungary. Ore Geology Reviews, v. 47, pp. 87–109. doi: 10.1016/j.oregeorev.2011.10.001.

Polgári, M., Szabó-Drubina, M., and Hein, J.R., 2003.  Phosphogenesis in Jurassic black shale-hosted Mn-carbonate deposit, Úrkút-Eplény, Hungary:  Investigations of archive sample drillcore Úrkút-136.  Földtani Közlöny, v. 133/1, p. 37-48. download PDF

Polgári, M., Szabó-Drubina, M., Hein, J.R., and Szabó, Z., 2003.  Analysis of an archive sample from the carbonatic manganese ore sequence, Eplény, Hungary.  Földtani Közlöny, v. 133/1, p. 21-35. download PDF

Polgári, M., Szabó, Z, Szabó-Drubina, M., Hein, J.R., and Yeh, H.-W., 2005.  A porous silica rock (“Tripoli”) in the footwall of the Jurassic Úrkút manganese deposit, Hungary: Composition, and origin through carbonate dissolution. Sedimentary Geology, v. 177, p. 87-96, doi: 10.1016/j.sedgeo.2005.02.002.

Rehkämper, M., Frank, M., Hein, J.R., Halliday, A., 2004. Cenozoic marine geochemistry of thallium deduced from isotopic studies of ferromanganese crusts and pelagic sediments.  Earth and Planetary Science Letters, v. 219, p. 77-91, doi: 10.1016/S0012-821x(03)00703-9.

Schmidt, K., Bau, M., Hein, J.R., and Koschinsky, A., 2014. Fractionation of the geochemical twins Zr-Hf and Nb-Ta during scavenging from seawater by hydrogenetic ferromanganese crusts. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, v. 140, pp. 468–487, doi: 10.1016/j.gca.2014.05.036.

Scott, S., Atmanand, M.A., Batchelor, D., Finkl, C., Garnett, R., Goodden, R., Hein, J., Heydon, D., Hobbs, C., Morgan, C., Rona, P., and Surawardi, N., 2008. Mineral Deposits in the sea: Second report of the ECOR (Engineering Committee on Oceanic Resources) Panel on Marine Mining, London, October 2008, 36 pp. (http://oceanicresources-ecor.amc.edu.au)

Scott, S., Atmanand, M.A., Hein, J., Heydon, D., and Morgan, C., 2006. Mineral Deposits in the sea: A future resource. Report of the ECOR (Engineering Committee on Oceanic Resources) Specialist Panel on Marine Mining, London, 23 March, 2006,13 pp, http://www.rina.org.uk/rfiles/ECOR/06MarineMiningPanelReport.pdf

Tihansky, A. and Hein, J.R., 2012. USGS assesses deep-sea mineral deposits: Possible source for rare metals used by high-technology industries. Newswave, Summer 2012, News from the DOI Ocean, coasts and great lakes, p.11.

van de Flierdt, T., Frank, M., Halliday, A.N., Hein, J.R., Hattendorf, B., Günther, D., and Kubik, P., 2003.  Lead isotopes in North Pacific deep water--implications for past changes in input sources and circulation patterns.  Earth and Planetary Science Letters, v. 209, p. 149-164. 

van de Flierdt, T., Frank, M., Halliday, A.N., Hein, J.R., Hattendorf, B., Günther, D., and Kubik, P.W., 2004.  Deep and bottom water export from the Southern Ocean to the Pacific over the past 38 million years.  Paleoceanography, 19, PA1020, doi:10.1029/2003PA000923

van de Flierdt, T., Frank, M., Halliday, A.N., Hein, J.R., Hattendorf, B., Günther, D., and Kubik, P.W., 2004. Tracing the history of submarine hydrothermal inputs and the significance of hydrothermal hafnium for the seawater budget—a combined Pb-Hf-Nd isotope approach.  Earth and Planetary Science Letters, v. 222, p. 259-273. 

van de Flierdt, T., Frank, M., Lee, D.-C., Halliday, A.N., Reynolds, B.C., and Hein, J.R., 2004.  New constraints on the sources and behavior of neodymium and hafnium in seawater from Pacific Ocean ferromanganese crusts.  Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, v. 68, p. 3827-3843.

Wang, X., Planavsky, N.J., Reinhard, C.T., Hein, J.R., and Johnson, T.M., 2016. A Cenozoic seawater redox record derived from 238U/235U in ferromanganese crusts. American Journal of Science, v. 316 no. 1, pp. 64–83, doi: 10.2475/01.2016.02, download PDF

Wasylenki, L.E., Weeks, C.L., Bargar, J.R., Spiro, T.G., Hein, J.R., Anbar, A.D., 2011. The molecular mechanism of Mo isotope fractionation during adsorption to birnessite. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, v. 75 no. 17, pp. 5019–5031, doi: 10.1016/j.gca.2011.06.020.

Zhong, Y., Chen, Z., González, F.J., Hein, J.R., Zheng, X., Li, G., Luo, Y., Mo, A., Tian, Y., and Wang, S., 2017. Composition and genesis of ferromanganese deposits from the northern South China Sea. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, v. 138, pp. 110–128, doi: 10.1016/j.jseaes.2017.02.015.

 

Accessibility FOIA Privacy Policies and Notices

U.S. Department of the Interior | U.S. Geological Survey
URL: https://walrus.wr.usgs.gov/research/projects/pac_eez_pubs.html
Page Contact Information: Laura Zink Torresan
(lzt)