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Submarine Groundwater Discharge


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Befus, K.M., Kroeger, K.D., Smith, C.G., and Swarzenski, P.W., 2017, The Magnitude and Origin of Groundwater Discharge to Eastern U.S. and Gulf of Mexico Coastal Waters: Geophysical Research Letters, v. 44 no. 20, pp. 10,396–10,406, doi: 10.1002/2017gl075238.

Dimova, N., Ganguli, P.M., Swarzenski, P.W., Izbicki, J.A., and O’Leary, D., 2017, Hydrogeologic controls on chemical transport at Malibu Lagoon, CA: Implications for land to sea exchange in coastal lagoon systems: Journal of Hydrology: Regional Studies, v. 11, pp. 219–233, doi: 10.1016/j.ejrh.2016.08.003.

Hejazian, M., Gurdak, J.J., Swarzenski, P., Odigie, K.O., and Storlazzi, C.D., 2017, Land-use change and managed aquifer recharge effects on the hydrogeochemistry of two contrasting atoll island aquifers, Roi-Namur Island, Republic of the Marshall Islands: Applied Geochemistry, v. 80, pp. 58–71, doi: 10.1016/j.apgeochem.2017.03.006.

Hoover, D.J., Odigie, K.O., Swarzenski, P.W., and Barnard, P., 2017, Sea-level rise and coastal groundwater inundation and shoaling at select sites in California, USA: Journal of Hydrology: Regional Studies, v. 11, pp. 234–249, doi: 10.1016/j.ejrh.2015.12.055.

Johannesson, K.H., Palmore, C.D., Fackrell, J., Prouty, N.G., Swarzenski, P.W., Chevis, D.A., Telfeyan, K., White, C.D., and Burdige, D.J., 2017, Rare earth element behavior during groundwater–seawater mixing along the Kona Coast of Hawaii: Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, v. 198, pp. 229–258, doi: 10.1016/j.gca.2016.11.009.

Oberle, F.K.J., Swarzenski, P.W., and Storlazzi, C.D., 2017, Atoll Groundwater Movement and Its Response to Climatic and Sea-Level Fluctuations: Water, v. 9 no. 9, pp. 1–18, doi: 10.3390/w9090650.

Prouty, N.G., Cohen, A., Yates, K.K., Storlazzi, C.D., Swarzenski, P.W., and White, D., 2017, Vulnerability of Coral Reefs to Bioerosion From Land-Based Sources of Pollution: Journal of Geophysical Research C: Oceans, v. 122 no. 12, doi: 10.1002/2017jc013264.

Prouty, N.G., and Gallagher, C., 2017, Olowalu chronology and geochemistry time-series: U.S. Geological Survey data release, doi: 10.5066/F72J69TH.

Prouty, N.G., Mienis, F., Campbell-Swarzenski, P., Roark, E.B., Davies, A.J., Robertson, C.M., Duineveld, G., Ross, S.W., Rhode, M., and Demopoulos, A.W.J., 2017, Seasonal variability in the source and composition of particulate matter in the depositional zone of Baltimore Canyon, U.S. Mid-Atlantic Bight: Deep Sea Research Part I: Oceanographic Research Papers, v. 127 no. Supplement C, pp. 77–89, doi: 10.1016/j.dsr.2017.08.004.

Prouty, N.G., Swarzenski, P.W., Fackrell, J.K., Johannesson, K., and Palmore, C.D., 2017, Groundwater-derived nutrient and trace element transport to a nearshore Kona coral ecosystem: Experimental mixing model results: Journal of Hydrology: Regional Studies, v. 11, pp. 166–177, doi: 10.1016/j.ejrh.2015.12.058.

Storlazzi, C.D., Gingerich, S.B., van Dongeren, A., Cheriton, O.M., Swarzenski, P.W., Quataert, E., Voss, C.I., Field, D.W., Annamalai, H., Piniak, G.A., and McCall, R., 2018, Most atolls will be uninhabitable by the mid-21st century because of sea-level rise exacerbating wave-driven flooding: Science Advances, v. 4 no. 4, doi: 10.1126/sciadv.aap9741.

Swarzenski, P.W., Dulai, H., Kroeger, K.D., Smith, C.G., Dimova, N., Storlazzi, C.D., Prouty, N.G., Gingerich, S.B., and Glenn, C.R., 2017, Observations of nearshore groundwater discharge: Kahekili Beach Park submarine springs, Maui, Hawaii: Journal of Hydrology: Regional Studies, v. 11, pp. 147–165, doi: 10.1016/j.ejrh.2015.12.056.


Mahu, E., Nyarko, E., Hulme, S., Swarzenski, P., Asiedu, D.K., and Coale, K.H., 2016, Geochronology and historical deposition of trace metals in three tropical estuaries in the Gulf of Guinea: Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, v. 177, pp. 31–40, doi: 10.1016/j.ecss.2016.05.007.

Oberle, F.K.J., Swarzenski, P.W., Reddy, C.M., Nelson, R.K., Baasch, B., and Hanebuth, T.J.J., 2016, Deciphering the lithological consequences of bottom trawling to sedimentary habitats on the shelf: Journal of Marine Systems, v. 159, pp. 120–131, doi: 10.1016/j.jmarsys.2015.12.008.

Smith, C.G., Price, R.M., Swarzenski, P.W., and Stalker, J.C., 2016, The Role of Ocean Tides on Groundwater-Surface Water Exchange in a Mangrove-Dominated Estuary: Shark River Slough, Florida Coastal Everglades, USA: Estuaries and Coasts, pp. 1–17, doi: 10.1007/s12237-016-0079-z.

Swarzenski, P.W., Johnson, C.D., Lorenson, T.D., Conaway, C.H., Gibbs, A.E., Erikson, L.H., Richmond, B.M., and Waldrop, M.P., 2016, Seasonal Electrical Resistivity Surveys of a Coastal Bluff, Barter Island, North Slope Alaska: Journal of Environmental & Engineering Geophysics, v. 21 no. 1, pp. 37–42, doi: 10.2113/Jeeg21.1.37.


Cohen, A., McGlue, M.M., Ellis, G.S., Zani, H., Swarzenski, P.W., Assine, M.L., and Silva, A., 2015, Lake formation, characteristics, and evolution in retroarc deposystems: A synthesis of the modern Andean orogen and its associated basins: Geological Society of America Memoirs, v. 212, pp. 309–335, doi: 10.1130/2015.1212(16).

Johnson, C.D., Swarzenski, P.W., Richardson, C.M., Smith, C.G., Kroeger, K.D., Ganguli, P.M., 2015, Ground-truthing Electrical Resistivity Methods in Support of Submarine Groundwater Discharge Studies: Examples from Hawaii, Washington, and California: Journal of Environmental & Engineering Geophysics, v. 20 no. 1, pp. 81–87, doi: 10.2113/Jeeg20.1.81


Densmore, Jill N., Izbicki, John A., Murtaugh, Joseph M., Swarzenski, Peter W., and Bullen, Thomas D., 2014, Alpha-emitting isotopes and chromium in a coastal California aquifer, Applied Geochemistry, v. 51, pp. 204-215, doi:10.1016/j.apgeochem.2014.09.016 [Download PDF (2.3 MB)]

Ganguli, Priya M., Swarzenski, Peter W., Dulaiova, Henrieta, Glenn, Craig R., and Flegal, A. Russell, 2014, Mercury dynamics in a coastal aquifer: Maunalua Bay, Oʻahu, Hawaiʻi, Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, v. 140, pp. 52-65, doi:10.1016/j.ecss.2014.01.012

Odigie, Kingsley O., Cohen, Andrew S., Swarzenski, Peter W., and Flegal, A. Russell, 2014, Using lead isotopes and trace element records from two contrasting Lake Tanganyika sediment cores to assess watershed – Lake exchange: Applied Geochemistry, v. 51, pp. 184-190, doi:10.1016/j.apgeochem.2014.10.007

Sheibley, Richard W, Enache, Mihaela, Swarzenski, Peter W., Moran, Patrick W., and Foreman, James R., 2014, Nitrogen Deposition Effects on Diatom Communities in Lakes from Three National Parks in Washington State: Water, Air, & Soil Pollution, v. 225, i.2, article 1857, doi:10.1007/s11270-013-1857-x [Download PDF (1 MB)]

Willems, Patrick, Batelaan, Okke, Hughes, Denis A., and Swarzenski, Peter W., 2014, Editorial for Journal of Hydrology, Regional Studies: Journal of Hydrology: Regional Studies, v. 1, pp. A1-A5, doi:10.1016/j.ejrh.2014.06.004


Barnard, P.L., Foxgrover, A.C., Elias, E.P.L., Erikson, L.H., Hein, J.R., McGann, M., Mizell, K., Rosenbauer, R.J., Swarzenski, P.W., Takesue, R.K., Wong, F.L., and Woodrow, D.L., 2013, Integration of bed characteristics, geochemical tracers, current measurements, and numerical modeling for assessing the provenance of beach sand in the San Francisco Bay coastal system, in Barnard, P.L., Jaffe, B.E., and Schoellhamer, D.H., eds., A multi-discipline approach for understanding sediment transport and geomorphic evolution in an estuarine-coastal system—San Francisco Bay: Marine Geology, v. 345, p. 181–206, doi:10.1016/j.margeo.2013.08.007

Batelaan, O., D.A. Hughes, P.W. Swarzenski, P. Willems, A. Bárdossy, L. Charlet, K.P. Georgakakos, P.K. Kitanidis, G. Syme, and C. Corradini, 2014, Journal of Hydrology Regional Studies: Journal of Hydrology, v. 507, pp. A1-A2, doi:10.1016/j.jhydrol.2013.10.023

Conaway, Christopher H., Storlazzi, Curt D., Draut, Amy E., and Swarzenski, Peter W., Short-term variability of 7Be atmospheric deposition and watershed response in a Pacific coastal stream, Monterey Bay, California, USA: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, v. 120, pp. 94-103, doi:10.1016/j.jenvrad.2013.02.004

Richardson, C. M., Swarzenski, P. W., and Johnson, C., 2013, Quantifying groundwater exchange rates in a beach barrier lagoon using a radioisotopic tracer and geophysical methods: Younger Lagoon, Santa Cruz, CA: Abstract H41F-1308 presented at 2013 Fall Meeting, AGU, San Francisco, Calif., 9-13 Dec.

Rosenbauer, R.J., Foxgrover, A.C., Hein, J.R., and Swarzenski, P.W., 2013, A Sr–Nd isotopic study of sand-sized sediment provenance and transport for the San Francisco Bay coastal system, in Barnard, P.L., Jaffe, B.E., and Schoellhamer, D.H., eds., A multi-discipline approach for understanding sediment transport and geomorphic evolution in an estuarine-coastal system—San Francisco Bay: Marine Geology, v. 345, p. 143–153, doi:10.1016/j.margeo.2013.01.002

Storlazzi, C.D., Field, M.E., Presto, M.K., Swarzenski, P.W., Logan, J.B., Reiss, T.E., Elfers, T.C., Cochran, S.A., Torresan, M.E., and Chezar, H., 2013, Coastal circulation and sediment dynamics in Pelekane and Kawaihae Bays, Hawaii--measurements of waves, current, temperature, salinity, turbidity, and geochronology: November 2010-March 2011: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2012-1264, 102 p.

Swarzenski, Peter W., Baskaran, Mark, Rosenbauer, Robert J., Edwards, Brian D., and Land, Michael, 2013, A Combined Radio- and Stable-Isotopic Study of a California Coastal Aquifer System: Water, v. 5, i. 2, pp. 480-504, doi:10.3390/w5020480 [Download PDF (1.7 MB)]

Swarzenski, P.W., Dulaiova, H., Dailer, M.L., Glenn, C.R., Smith, C.G., and Storlazzi, C.D., 2013, A geochemical and geophysical assessment of coastal groundwater discharge at select sites in Maui and Oʻahu, Hawaiʻi, in Wetzelhuetter, C., ed., Groundwater in the coastal zones of Asia Pacific: Coastal Research Library, v. 7: New York, Springer, p. 27-46, doi:10.1007/978-94-007-5648-9


Conaway, Christopher H., Swarzenski, Peter W., and Cohen Andrew S, 2012, Recent paleorecords document rising mercury contamination in Lake Tanganyika: Applied Geochemistry, vol. 27 i. 1 pp. 352-359, doi:10.1016/j.apgeochem.2011.11.005

Dimova, NT, Swarzenski, PW, Dulaiova, H, and Glenn, C, 2012, Utilizing multichannel electrical resistivity methods to examine the dynamics of the fresh water–seawater interface in two Hawaiian groundwater systems: Journal Geophysical Research, v. 117, C02012, 12 PP.: doi:10.1029/2011JC007509

Ganguli, PM, Conaway, CH, Swarzenski, PW, Izbicki, JA, and Flegal, AR, 2012, Mercury speciation and transport in a California coastal lagoon system: The role of submarine groundwater discharge and monomethyl mercury production: Environmental Science and Technology, v.46, i.3, pp.1480−1488, doi:10.1021/es202783u

Izbicki, John A.; Swarzenski, Peter W.; Burton, Carmen A.; Van De Werfhorst, Laurie; Holden, Patricia A.; and Dubinsky, Eric A., 2012, Sources of Fecal Indicator Bacteria to Groundwater, Malibu Lagoon and the Near-Shore Ocean, Malibu, California, USA: Annals of Environmental Science, v. 6, article 4, [Download PDF (23.8 MB)]

McGlue, Michael M., Ellis, Geoffrey S., Cohen, Andrew S., and Swarzenski, Peter W., 2012, Playa-lake sedimentation and organic matter accumulation in an Andean piggyback basin: the recent record from the Cuenca de Pozuelos, North-west Argentina: Sedimentology, v. 59, i. 4, pp.1237-1256, doi:10.1111/j.1365-3091.2011.01304.x

Null, KA, Dimova, N, Knee, KL, Esser, BK, Swarzenski, PW, Singleton, MJ, Stacey, M, and Paytan, A. 2012, Submarine groundwater discharge-derived nutrient loads to San Francisco Bay: Implications for future ecosystem changes: Estuaries and Coasts, v. 35, i. 5, pp 1299-1315, doi:10.1007/s12237-012-9526-7

Shim, M-J., Swarzenski, PW, and Shiller, AM, 2012, Dissolved and Colloidal Trace Elements in the Mississippi River Delta Outflow after Hurricanes Katrina and Rita. Continental Shelf Research, 42: 1-9, doi:10.1016/j.csr.2012.03.007

Smith, C.G., and Swarzenski, P.W., 2012, An investigation of submarine-groundwater-borne nutrient fluxes to the west Florida shelf and recurrent harmful algal blooms: Limnology and Oceanography, v. 57, no. 2, p. 471-485, doi:10.4319/lo.2012.57.2.0471

Smith, C.G., Swarzenski, P.W., Dimova, N.T., and Zhang, J., 2012, Natural Radium and Radon Tracers to Quantify Water Exchange and Movement in Reservoirs: In, Baskaran, M. (Ed.), Handbook of Environmental Isotope Geochemistry, v. 1, Pt. II, pp. 345–365, doi:10.1007/978-3-642-10637-8_18

Swarzenski, Peter W., Storlazzi, Curt D., Presto, M. Katherine, Gibbs, Ann E., Smith, C.G., Dimova, N.T., Dailer, M.L., and Logan, Joshua B., 2012, Nearshore morphology, benthic structure, hydrodynamics, and coastal groundwater discharge near Kahekili Beach Park, Maui, Hawaii: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2012–1166


Conaway, C.H., Swarzenski, P.W., and Cohen, A.S. 2011, Paleorecords document rising mercury contamination in Lake Tanganyika: Applied Geochemistry, Volume 27, Issue 1, January 2012, Pages 352–359, doi:10.1016/j.apgeochem.2011.11.005

Dinicola, Richard S., Peter W. Swarzenski, and Jennifer Dougherty, 2011, Select Inorganic and Organic Loadings to Nearshore Liberty Bay, Puget Sound, Washington; In, Takesue, RK, ed., Hydrography of and biogeochemical inputs to Liberty Bay, a small urban embayment in Puget Sound, Washington: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2011–5152, Ch. 3

McGlue, MM, Ellis, GS, Cohen, AS and Swarzenski, PW, 2011, Playa-lake sedimentation and organic matter accumulation in an Andean piggyback basin: the recent record from the Cuenca de Pozuelos, North-west Argentina: Sedimentology, doi:10.1111/j.1365-3091.2011.01304.x

McGlue, MM, et al., 2011, Limnogeology in Brazil's "forgotten wilderness": a synthesis from the large floodplain lakes of the Pantanal: Journal of Paleolimnology, Volume 46, Number 2, 273-289, doi:10.1007/s10933-011-9538-5; see also, corrected figure caption at doi:10.1007/s10933-011-9545-6

Santos, IR, Burnett, WC, Misra, S, Suryaputra, IGNA, Chanton, JP, Dittmar, T, Peterson, RN, Swarzenski, PW, 2011, Uranium and barium cycling in a salt wedge subterranean estuary: The influence of tidal pumping: Chemical Geology, v. 287, i. 1–2, pp. 114-123, doi:10.1016/j.chemgeo.2011.06.005

Smith, CG, Swarzenski, PW, Dimova, N. and Zhang, J, 2011, Natural Radium and Radon Tracers to Quantify Water Exchange and Movement in Reservoirs: In, M. Baskaran (ed.), Handbook of Environmental Isotope Geochemistry; Advances in Isotope Geochemistry, Springer Verlag Berlin Heidelberg, p. 345-365, doi:10.1007/978-3-642-10637-8_18

Takesue, R.K., and Swarzenski, P.W., 2011, More than 100 years of background-level sedimentary metals, Nisqually River Delta, South Puget Sound, Washington: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2010-1329, 13 p.

Weinstein, Y, Yechieli, Y, Shalem, Y, Burnett, WS, Swarzenski, PW, Herut, B, 2011, What Is the Role of Fresh Groundwater and Recirculated Seawater in Conveying Nutrients to the Coastal Ocean?: Environmental Science and Technology, 45 (12), pp 5195–5200, doi:10.1021/es104394r

Zhang, L., Zhang, J., P. W. Swarzenski, P. W, and Liu, Z., 2011, Radium Isotope Tracers to Evaluate Coastal Ocean Mixing and Residence Times: In, M. Baskaran (ed.): Handbook of Environmental Isotope Geochemistry—Advances in Isotope Geochemistry, Springer Verlag Berlin Heidelberg, Part 2, 331-343, doi:10.1007/978-3-642-10637-8_17


Dougherty, J.A., Swarzenski, P.W., Dinicola, R.S., and Reinhard, M., 2010, Occurrence of Herbicides and Pharmaceutical and Personal Care Products in Surface Water and Groundwater around Liberty Bay, Puget Sound, Washington: Journal of Environmental Quality, v. 39, no. 4, p. 1173-1180, doi:10.2134/jeq2009.0189

Kim, G. and Swarzenski, P.W., 2010, Submarine ground-water discharge (SGD) and associated nutrient fluxes to the coastal ocean. In, Carbon and Nutrient Fluxes in Continental Margins: A Global Synthesis; in, K.-K. Liu, L. Atkinson, R. Quinones, and L. Talaue-McManus, eds.: Springer-Verlag, New York, pp. 529-538.

Mwashote, B., Burnett, W.C., Chanton, J., Peterson, R., Santos, I., Dimova, N., and Swarzenski, P.W., 2010, Calibration and use of continuous heat-type automated meters from submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) measurements: Estuarine Coastal Shelf Science, doi:10.1016/j.ecss.2009.12.001

Tierney, J.E., Mayes, M.M., Meyer, N., Johnson, C., Swarzenski, P.W., Cohen, A.S., and Russell, J.M., 2010, Late-twentieth-century warming in Lake Tanganyika unprecedented since AD 500 Nature Geosciences, 3, 422 – 425.
Companion Backstory in Nature Geoscience:

Xu, J.P., Swarzenski, P.W., Noble, M., and Li, A.C., 2010, Event driven sediment transport in Huemene and Mugu Canyons, southern California. Marine Geology, doi:10.1016/j.margeo.2009.12.007


Baskaran, M., P. W. Swarzenski, and B. A. Biddanda (2009), Constraints on the utility of MnO2 cartridge method for the extraction of radionuclides: A case study using 234Th, Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst., 10, Q04011. doi:10.1029/2008GC002340

Izbicki, JA, Swarzenski, PW, Reich, C, Rollins, C, and Holden, P (2009), Sources of fecal indicator bacteria in urban streams and ocean beaches, Santa Barbara, CA: Annals of Environmental Science, 3, pp. 139-178. [Download PDF (1.7 MB)]

Liu, B., Schaider, LA Senn, DB Mason, RP Bank, MS Swarzenski, PW, Shine, JP Holweg, T, and Rabalais, N. (2009), Disturbance impacts on mercury dynamics in northern Gulf of Mexico sediments: J. Geophys. Res. doi:10.1029/2008JG000752

Osterman, LE, Poore, RZ, and Swarzenski, PW, Senn, D, DiMarco, S and Turner, RE (2009), 20th Century development and expansion of Louisiana shelf hypoxia, Gulf of Mexico: Geo-Marine Letters, doi:10.1007/s00367-009-0158-2

Rosenbauer, RJ, Swarzenski PW, Orem, WH Kendall, C, Hostettler, FD, and Rollog, ME. (2009), A carbon nitrogen and sulfur elemental and isotopic study in dated sediment cores from the Louisiana Shelf: Geo-Marine Letters, doi:10.1007/s00367-009-0151-9

Swarzenski, P.W., Baskaran, M., Rosenbauer, R., Edwards, B., Land, M. (2009), A Geochemical Investigation of a Coastal Aquifer System Using Radioactive (223,224,226,228Ra, 222Rn, 3H and 14C) and Stable Isotope (δ18O, δD, δ13CDIC) Tracers. In Biogeochemistry of Sediment and Groundwater Systems. Eds. O Braids and PW Swarzenski, Springer.

Swarzenski. P.W., Dellapenna, TM., Reich, C.D. and Noll, CJ. (2009), Examining Submarine Ground-water Discharge into Simpson Bay, Alaska with Electrical Resistivity and Radon. EEGS/SAGEEP Proceedings volume. Ft Worth, TX March 31-April 2, 2009

Swarzenski, P.W. and Izbicki, J.A. (2009), Coastal groundwater dynamics off Santa Barbara, California: Combining geochemical tracers, electromagnetic seepmeters, and electrical resistivity. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, v. 83 i. 1, 77-89. doi:10.1016/j.ecss.2009.03.027 [Download PDF (1200 kb)]

Swarzenski, PW, Izbicki, JA, Grossman, EE, Glenn, CR, Plath, CA, and JL Kelly (2009), A multi-proxy approach to submarine groundwater discharge studies: Examples from Santa Barbara, CA and Maunalua Bay, HI. Goldschmidt Conference Abstracts, June 21-26, 2009, p. A1299.

Swarzenski, PW, Reich, C. and Rudnick, D. (2009), Examining submarine groundwater discharge into Florida Bay using 222Rn and marine resistivity. USGS Open File Report 2008-1342


Osterman, L.E., Poore, R.Z., Swarzenski, P.W. (2008) The last 1000 years of natural and anthropogenic low-oxygen bottom water on the Louisiana shelf, Gulf of Mexico, Marine Micropaleontology 2007. doi:10.1016/j.marmicro.2007.10.005

Reich, CR, Swarzenski, PW, Greenwood, WJ and Wiese, DS (2008) Investigation of coastal hydrology utilizing geophysical and geochemical tools along the Broward County coast, Florida. USGS Open File Report 2008-1364

Simonds, F.W., Swarzenski, P.W., Rosenberry, D.O., Reich, C.D., and Paulson, A.J. (2008) Estimates of nutrient loading by groundwater discharge into Lynch Cove area of Hood Canal, Washington. USGS Scientific Investigations Report 2008-5078

Swarzenski, P.W, Campbell, P.L., Osterman, L.E. and R.Z. Poore (2008) A combined geochemical and foraminiferal study on the Louisiana shelf: evidence for recurring low-oxygen events during the last millennium? Marine Chemistry. 109, pp. 130-142. doi:10.1016/j.marchem.2008.01.003

Wolfert-Lohmann, M.A., Langevin, C.D., Jones, S.A., and others (2008) USGS Science Support Strategy for Biscayne National Park and Surrounding Areas in Southeastern Florida: USGS Open-File Report 2007-1288, 47 p.


Baskaran, M. and Swarzenski, P.W. (2007) Seasonal variations on the residence times and partitioning of short-lived radionuclides (234Th, 7Be and 210Pb) and depositional fluxes of 7Be and 210Pb in Tampa Bay, Florida. Marine Chemistry, 104, pp. 27-42, Special Issue, Biogeochemical Cycles in Tampa Bay, Florida. Editors P.W. Swarzenski and M. Baskaran. doi:10.1016/j.marchem.2006.06.012

Burnett, W.C., Santos, I., Weinstein, Y., Swarzenski, P.W., and Herut, B. (2007) Remaining uncertainties in the use of Rn-222 as a quantitative tracer of submarine groundwater discharge. In, A New Focus on Groundwater–Seawater Interactions. Eds W. Sanford, C. Langevin, M. Polemio, and P. Povinec. IAHS Publ. 312, pp. 109-118 (abs.:

Chen, Z., Hu, C, Comny, R.N., Swarzenski, P.W. and Muller-Karger, F. (2007) Colored dissolved organic matter in BayMarine Chemistry, 104, pp. 98-109, Special Issue, Biogeochemical Cycles in Tampa Bay, Florida. Editors P.W. Swarzenski and M. Baskaran. doi:10.1016/j.marchem.2006.12.007

Klerks, P.L., Felder, D.L., Strasser, K. and Swarzenski, P.W. (2007) Effects of ghost shrimp on zinc and cadmium in Tampa Bay sediment. Marine Chemistry, 104, pp. 17-26, Special Issue, Biogeochemical Cycles in Tampa Bay, Florida. Editors P.W. Swarzenski and M. Baskaran. doi:10.1016/j.marchem.2006.12.014

Kroeger, K.D., Swarzenski, P.W., Crusius, J., Bratton, J.F. and Charette, M.A. (2007) Nitrogen biogeochemistry in zones of submarine groundwater discharge. USGS Fact Sheet 2006-3110

Kroeger, K.D., Swarzenski, P.W., Reich, C. and Greenwood, W.J. (2007) Submarine groundwater discharge to Tampa Bay: Nutrient fluxes and biogeochemistry of the coastal aquifer. Marine Chemistry, 104, pp. 85-97, Special Issue, Biogeochemical Cycles in Tampa Bay, Florida. Editors P.W. Swarzenski and M. Baskaran. doi:10.1016/j.marchem.2006.10.012

Orem, William H.; Rosenbauer, Robert J.; Swarzenski, Peter W.; Lerch, Harry E.; Corum, Margo D.; Bates, Anne L. (2007) Organic Geochemistry of Sediments in Nearshore Areas of the Mississippi and Atchafalaya Rivers: I. General Organic Characterization. USGS Open-File Report 2007-1180

Orem, William H.; Swarzenski, Peter W.; McPherson, Benjamin F.; Hedgepath, Marion; Lerch, Harry E.; Reich, Christopher; Torres, Arturo E.; Corum, Margo D.; Roberts, Richard E. (2007), Assessment of Groundwater Input and Water Quality Changes Impacting Natural Vegetation in the Loxahatchee River and Floodplain Ecosystem, Florida. USGS Open-File Report 2007-1304

Osterman, L.E., Campbell, P.L., Swarzenski, P.W., Ricardo, J.P. (2007) Biological, Physical and Chemical Data From Gulf of Mexico Gravity and Box Core MRD05-04: USGS Open File Report 2007-1024, 18 p.

Swarzenski, P.W. (2007) U/Th series radionuclides as tracers of coastal groundwater. Chemical Reviews, 107(2), pp. 663-674, doi:10.1021/cr0503761

Swarzenski, P.W. and Baskaran, M. (2007) Uranium distributions in the coastal waters and pore waters of Tampa Bay, Florida. Marine Chemistry, Special Issue, Biogeochemical Cycles in Tampa Bay, Florida. Editors P.W. Swarzenski and M Baskaran, 104, pp. 43-57. doi:10.1016/j.marchem.2006.05.002

Swarzenski, P.W., Baskaran, M., Yates, K, Henderson, C. (2007) Tampa Bay as a model estuary for examining the impact of human activities on biogeochemical processes: An Introduction. In, Marine Chemistry, 104, 1-3; Special Issue, Biogeochemical Cycles in Tampa Bay, Florida. Editors P.W. Swarzenski and M. Baskaran. doi:10.1016/j.marchem.2006.12.009

Swarzenski, P.W., Campbell, P.L., Poore, R.Z., Osterman, L.E., Rosenbauer, R.J. (2007) Examining offshore sediment-hosted contaminant transport from Hurricane Katrina, Chapter 7, p. 197-20, [3.6 MB PDF]. In, Farris, G.S., Smith, G.J., Crane, M.P., Demas, C.R., Robbins, L.L., Lavoie, D.L. (Eds.), Science and the storms—the USGS response to the hurricanes of 2005. USGS Circular 1306

Swarzenski, P.W. Kruse, S. Reich, C., Swarzenski, W.V. (2007) Multi-channel resistivity investigations of the fresh water / saltwater interface: A new tool to study an old problem. In, A New Focus on Groundwater–Seawater Interactions. Eds W. Sanford, C. Langevin, M. Polemio, and P. Povinec. IAHS Publ. 312, pp. 100-108 (abs.:

Swarzenski, P.W., Reich, C., Kroeger, K., Baskaran, M.  (2007) Ra and Rn isotopes as natural tracers of submarine groundwater discharge in Tampa Bay, FL. Marine Chemistry, 104, pp. 69-84. In, Special Issue, Biogeochemical Cycles in Tampa Bay, Florida. Editors P.W. Swarzenski and M. Baskaran. doi:10.1016/j.marchem.2006.08.001

Swarzenski, P.W., F. W. Simonds, T. Paulson, S. Kruse, and C. Reich (2007), A Geochemical and Geophysical Examination of Submarine Groundwater Discharge and Associated Nutrient Loading Estimates into Lynch Cove, Hood Canal, WA. Environmental Science and Technology. 41, pp. 7022-7029

Weinstein, Y., W.C. Burnett, P.W. Swarzenski, Y. Shalem, Y. Yechieli, and B. Herut. (2007), Role of aquifer heterogeneity in fresh groundwater discharge and seawater recycling: An example from the Carmel coast, Israel. Journal of Geophysical Research, 112, C12016, doi:10.1029/2007JC004112

Weinstein, Y., Y. Shalem, W.C. Burnett, P.W. Swarzenski, and B. Herut. (2007) Temporal variability of Submarine Groundwater Discharge: assessments via radon and seep meters, the southern Carmel Coast, Israel. In, A New Focus on Groundwater–Seawater Interactions. Eds W. Sanford, C. Langevin, M. Polemio, and P. Povinec. IAHS Publ. 312, pp. 125-133 (abs.:


Greenwood, W.J., Kruse, S. and Swarzenski, P.W. (2006) Extending electromagnetic methods to map coastal pore-water salinities. Ground Water, 44, pp. 292-299.

Hu, C., F. Muller-Karger, and P.W. Swarzenski (2006) Hurricanes, submarine groundwater discharge and west Florida's red tides. Geophysical Research Letters, 33, L11601, doi:10.1029/2005GL025449

Osterman, L.E., Swarzenski, P.W. and Hollander, D. (2006) Biological, physical and chemical data from Gulf of Mexico core PE0305-GC1. USGS Open-File Report 2006-1012.

Osterman, L.E., Swarzenski, P.W. and Poore, R.Z. (2006) Gulf of Mexico Dead Zone – the Last 150 years. USGS Fact Sheet 2006-3005

Swarzenski, P.W., Baskaran, M., Orem, W.G. and Rosenbauer, R. (2006) Historical reconstruction of contaminant inputs within sediments of the Mississippi River Delta. Estuaries and Coasts, 29/6B, 1094-1107. Also available on-line at

Swarzenski, P.W., Burnett W.C., Weinstein, Y, Greenwood, W.J., Herut, B., Peterson, R. and Dimova, N. (2006) Combined time-series resistivity and geochemical tracer techniques to examine submarine groundwater discharge at Dor Beach Israel. Geophysical Research Letters, 33, L24405, doi:10.1029/2006GL028282

Swarzenski, P.W., W.G. Orem, B.F. McPherson, M. Baskaran, and Y. Wan (2006) Biogeochemical transport in the Loxahatchee river estuary: The role of submarine groundwater discharge. Marine Chemistry, 101, pp. 248-265. doi:10.1016/j.marchem.2006.03.007

Waldrop, W.R. and Swarzenski, P.W. (2006) A new tool for quantifying flux rates between ground water and surface water. In, Coastal Hydrology and Processes. Edited by V.P. Singh and Y.J. Xu. Water Resources Publications, LLC, Highlands Ranch, Colorado American Institute of Hydrology Proceedings, pp. 305-311.


Cohen, A.S., Palacios, M.R., McGill, J., Swarzenski P.W., Vershuren, D., Sinyinza, R., Songori, T., Kakagozo, B., Syamphila, M., O’Reilly, C.O., and Alin, S. (2005), The Lake Tanganyika Biodiversity Project’s paleolimnological investigations of anthropogenic environmental change in Lake Tanganyika. Journal of Paleolimnology, 1, pp. 1-18.

Crusius, J., D.J. Koopmans, J.F. Bratton, M. Charette, K. Kroeger, P. Henderson, L. Ryckman, K. Halloran, and J. Colman. (2005), Submarine groundwater discharge to a small estuary estimated from radon and salinity measurements and a box model. Biogeosciences Discussions, 1, pp. 1-35.

Dean, W., Forester, R., Colman, S., Liu, A., Skipp, G., Simmons, K., Swarzenski, P. and Anderson, R. (2005), Modern and glacial-Holocene carbonate sedimentation in Bear Lake.  USGS Open-File Report 2005-1124

Jaffe, L.A., Hilton D.R., Porcelli, D., Swarzenski, P.W., Baskaran, M. and Kulongoski, J.T. (2005), U-Th-Ra-Rn-He relationships in Mojave River Basin groundwaters. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 69, A839.

Nielsen, G.S., Rehkamper, M., Porcelli, D., Andersson, P., Halliday, A., Swarzenski, P.W., Latkoczy, C. and Gunther, D. (2005), The thallium isotope composition of the upper continental crust and rivers – An investigation of the continental sources of dissolved marine thallium.  Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 69, pp. 2007-2019.

Osterman, L., R. Poore, P.W. Swarzenski, and E. Turner. (2005), Reconstructing a 180-year record of natural and anthropogenic induced hypoxia from the sediments of the Louisianacontinental shelf. Geology, 33/4: pp. 329–332.

Smoak, J.M., Krest, J.M. and Swarzenski, P.W. (2005), Geochemistry of the Amazon Estuary, The Handbook of Environmental Chemistry, Springer-Verlag GmbH, Volume H, pp. 71 – 90.

Sune, G., Rehkamper, M., Porcelli, D., Andersson, P., Halliday, A., Swarzenski, P.W., Latkoczy, C. and Gunther, D. (2005), The thallium isotope composition of the upper continental crust and rivers – An investigation of the continental sources of dissolved marine thallium. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 69, pp. 2007-2019.

Swarzenski, P.W. (2005), Gulf of Mexico integrated science – Tampa Bay study, the impact of groundwater and contaminants on Tampa Bay. USGS Open-File Report 2005-1015

Swarzenski, P.W. and Campbell, P. (2005), On the world-wide riverine delivery of sediment-hosted contaminants. In, Encyclopedia of Hydrological Sciences. Ed., M.G. Anderson. Wiley, London, 2: 1341-1358.


Bratton, J.F., J.K. Böhlke, F.T. Manheim, and D.E. Krantz. (2004) Ground water beneath coastal bays of the Delmarva Peninsula: Ages and nutrients: Ground Water, 42(7), 1021-1034.

Cable, J.E., J.M. Martin, P.W. Swarzenski, M.K. Lindenburg, and J. Steward. (2004) Advection within shallow pore waters of a coastal lagoon, Florida. Ground Water, 42, 1011-1020.

Charette, M.A., and K.O. Buesseler. (2004) Submarine groundwater discharge of nutrients and copper to an urban subestuary of Chesapeake Bay (Elizabeth River). Limnology and Oceanography, 49, 376-385.

Crusius, J., J. Bratton, and M. Charette. (2004) Putting radon to work: Identifying coastal groundwater discharge sites. USGS Open-File Report 2004-1381.

Flocks, J. and Swarzenski, P. (2004) Cruise report: Sediment collection from Orca and Pigmy Basins, Gulf of Mexico, and analysis of trace metal concentrations. in USGS Open-File Report 2004-1358, 37 p. 2004.

Hu, C.M., Z.Q. Chen, T.D. Clayton, P.W. Swarzenski, J.C. Brock, and F.E. Muller-Karger. (2004) Assessment of estuarine water quality indicators using MODIS medium-resolution bands: Initial results from Tampa Bay. Remote Sensing of Environment, 93, 423-441.

Krantz, D.E., F.T. Manheim, J.F. Bratton, and J.P. Daniel. (2004) Hydrogeologic setting and ground water flow beneath a section of Indian River Bay, Delaware. Ground Water, 42(7), 1035-1051.

Manheim, F.T., D.E. Krantz, and J.F. Bratton. (2004) Studying ground water under Delmarva coastal bays using electrical resistivity. Ground Water, 42(7), 1052-1068.

Martin, J.B., J.E. Cable, P.W. Swarzenski, and M. Lindenberg. (2004) Mixing of groundwater and surface water: Influences on ground water discharge and contaminant transport. Ground Water, 42, 1000-1010.

Smoak, J.M. and Swarzenski, P.W. (2004) Recent historical rates of sediment and nutrient accumulation in Bear Lake, Utah / Idaho, USA. Hydrobiologia, 525: 175-184.

Swarzenski, P.W. and Baskaran, M. (2004) Is the extraction of thorium onto MnO2-coated filter cartridges uniform? USGS Open-File Report 2004-1421.

Swarzenski, P.W., J. Bratton, and J. Crusius. (2004) Submarine groundwater discharge and its role in coastal processes. USGS Open-File Report 2004-1226.

Swarzenski, P.W., B. Burnett, C. Reich, H. Dulaiova, R. Martin, and J. Meunier. (2004) Novel geophysical and geochemical techniques to study submarine groundwater discharge in Biscayne Bay, Fl. USGS Fact Sheet 2004-3117.

Swarzenski, P.W. and P.L. Campbell. (2004) Tracking contaminants down the Mississippi River. Geotimes, May, 40-41.

Swarzenski, P.W., Campbell, P.L., Porcelli, D. and McKee, B.A. (2004) The estuarine chemistry and isotope systematics of 234,238U in the Amazon and Fly Rivers. Continental Shelf Research, 24: 2357-2372.

Swarzenski, P.W., M. Charette, and C. Langevin. (2004) An autonomous, electromagnetic seepage meter to study coastal groundwater/surface water exchange. USGS Open-File Report 2004-1369.


Baskaran, M., P.W. Swarzenski, and D. Porcelli. (2003) Role of colloidal material in the removal of 234Th in the Canada Basin of the Arctic Basin. Deep Sea Research, 50/10-11, 1353-1373.

Bratton, J., G. Guntenspergen, B. Taggart, D. Wheeler, L. Bjorklund, M. Bothner, R. Kotra, R. Lent, E. Mecray, H. Neckles, B. Poore, S. Rideout, S. Russell-Robinson, and P. Weiskel. (2003) Coastal ecosystems and resources framework for science. USGS Open-File Report 03-405.

Katz, B.G., D.W. Griffin, P.W. Swarzenski, S.J. Walsh, and H.L. Jelks. (2003) Florida springs interdisciplinary science study. USGS Fact Sheet FS-008-03, 4p.

Martin, J.M., K.M. Hartl, R.D. Corbett, P.W. Swarzenski, and J.E. Cable. (2003) A multi-level pore-water sampler for permeable sediments. J. Sedimentary Research, 73(1), 128-132.

Porcelli, D., and P.W. Swarzenski. (2003) The behaviour of U- and Th series nuclides in groundwater and the tracing of groundwater. Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry, 52, 317-361.

Swarzenski, P.W., and J.L. Kindinger. (2003) Leaky coastal margins: Examples of enhanced coastal groundwater/surface water exchange from Tampa Bay and Crescent Beach submarine Spring, Florida, USA. In Coastal Aquifer Management, Monitoring and Modeling and Case Studies. Editors A. Cheng and D. Ouazar. CRC/Lewis Press, 93-112.

Swarzenski, P.W., D. Porcelli, P. Andersson, and D. Smoak. (2003) The behaviour of U-and Th-series nuclides in the estuarine environment. Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry, 52, 577-606.


Martin J.B., Cable J.E., and Swarzenski, P.W. (2002) Quantification of ground water discharge and nutrient loading to the Indian River Lagoon: Special Publication - St. Johns River Water Management District SJ2002-SP5.

Nielsen S.G., M. Rehkamper, D. Porcelli, P.W. Swarzenski, and A. Halliday. (2002) Isotopic compositions and concentrations of estuarine thallium. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 66(15A), A554.

Shinn, E.A., C.D. Reich, and T.D. Hickey. (2002) Seepage Meters and Bernoulli’s Revenge. Estuaries, volume 25, no. 1, pp. 126-132.


Burnett, W., Kim, G., Lane-Smith, D. (2001), A continuous monitor for assessment of 222Rn in the coastal ocean. Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry. Volume 249, no. 1, pp. 167–172. doi:10.1023/A:1013217821419

Fitzgerald, S., V. Klump, P.W. Swarzenski, and C. Richards. (2001) Be-7 as a tracer of short-term sediment deposition and resuspension in the Fox River, WI. Environmental Science and Technology, 35(2), 300-305. doi:10.1021/es000951c

Flocks, J.G., J.L. Kindinger, B. Jeffrey, and P.W. Swarzenski, PW. (2001) Geophysical investigations of upward migrating saline water from the lower to upper Floridan Aquifer, central Indian River region, FL. USGS Water Resources Investigations Report 01-4011, pp. 135-140.

Kim, G., W.C. Burnett, P.W. Swarzenski, and W.S. Moore. (2001) Measurement of 224Ra and 226Ra activities in natural waters using a radon-in-air monitor. Environmental Science and Technology, 35, 4680-4683.

Reich, C.D., E.A. Shinn, T.D. Hickey, and A.B. Tihansky, 2001, Tidal and Meterological Influences on Shallow Marine Groundwater Flow in the Upper Florida Keys, In the Everglades, Florida Bay and Coral Reefs of the Florida Keys: An Ecosystem Source-book, Porter, J.W. and Porter, K.G., Editors, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, pp. 659-676.

Reich, C.D., P.W. Swarzenski, J.L. Kindinger, J.G. Flocks, T.D. Hickey, and R.M. Spechler. (2001) Direct linkages between onshore karst aquifers and offshore marine environments, Crescent Beach Spring, FL. USGS Water Resources Investigations Report 01-4011, p. 106.

Swarzenski, P.W. (2001) Evaluating Basin/Shelf effects in the delivery of sediment-hosted contaminants in the Atchafalaya and Mississippi River Delta - a new U.S. Geological Survey Coastal and Marine Project. USGS Open-File Report 01-215.

Swarzenski, P.W., K.A. Kvenvolden, A.J. Horowitz, AJ and ten Brink, M. (2001) Integrated strategy urged to address coastal contamination issues. EOS, 82, 500.

Swarzenski, P.W., J.B. Martin, and J.E. Cable. (2001) Submarine groundwater discharge in upper Indian River Lagoon. USGS Water Resources Investigations Report 01-4011, p. 194-197.

Swarzenski, P.W., C.D. Reich, R.M. Spechler, J.L. Kindinger, and W.S. Moore. (2001) Using multiple geochemical tracers to characterize the hydrogeology of the submarine spring off Crescent Beach, Florida. Chemical Geology, 179, 187-202. doi:10.1016/S0009-2541(01)00322-9

Swarzenski, P.W., K. Yates, P. Carlson, D. Felder, M. Fernandez, P. Klerks, S. Kruse, J. Martin, and Y. Stoker. (2001) Tampa Bay integrated science pilot study: A 2001-2002 drought induced imprint on estuarine processes? USGS Open-file Report 01-289.


Martin, J.B., J.E. Cable, and P.W. Swarzenski. (2000) Quantification of ground water discharge and nutrient loading to the Indian River Lagoon. Saint Johns River Water Management District, pp. 168.

Pohlman, J.W., J.F. Bratton, and R.B. Coffin, RB. (2000) Porewater methane geochemistry of Marion Dufresne cores MD99-2205 and -2206. USGS Open-File Report 00-306.

Swarzenski, P.W. (2000) Radium isotopes as sediment-water interface tracers; Indian River Lagoon, Florida. USGS Open-File Report 00-482.

Swarzenski, P.W., D.R. Corbett, J.M. Smoak, and B.A. McKee. (2000) The use of U-Th series radionuclides and transient tracers in oceanography: An overview. In: Chemistry in the Marine Environment, editors R.E. Hester and R.M. Harrison. The Royal Society of Chemistry, United Kingdom, No. 13. (Invited Book Chapter) pp. 33-53.

Swarzenski, P.W., J.B. Martin, J.E. Cable, R. Bowker. (2000) Quantifying submarine groundwater discharge to Indian River Lagoon, Florida. USGS Open-File Report 00-492.

Swarzenski, P.W. and C. Reich. (2000) Re-examining the submarine spring at Crescent Beach, Florida. USGS Open-File Report 00-158.


Swarzenski, P.W. (1999) A Cruise Report of the Joint National Geographic Society- U.S. Geological Survey Lake Tanganyika River-Lake Interactions Expedition, July 8th – 27th, 1999.  USGS OFR 00-381.

Swarzenski, P.W. (1999) Examining freshwater-saltwater interface processes using radium isotope systematics. USGS Fact Sheet 065-99.

Swarzenski, P.W., C.W. Holmes, E.A. Shinn, and W.S. Moore. (1999) Tracing the mixing and movement of ground water into Florida Bay with four naturally occurring radium isotopes. In, Proceedings of the 1999 Georgia Water Resources Conference. K. J. Hatcher, editor, The University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia, pp. 590-592.

Swarzenski, P.W., B.A. McKee, J.M. Skei, J.G. Booth, and J.F. Todd. (1999) Uranium across the redox transition zone of a permanently stratified Fjord: Framvaren, Norway. Marine Chemistry, 67, 181-198.

Swarzenski, P.W., B.A. McKee, K. Sørensen, and J.F. Todd. (1999) 210Pb and 210Po, manganese and iron cycling across the O2/H2S interface of a permanently stratified Fjord: Framvaren, Norway. Marine Chemistry, 67, 199-217.


Swarzenski, P.W., and B.A. McKee. (1998) Seasonal uranium distributions in the coastal waters adjacent to the Amazon and Mississippi Rivers. Estuaries, 21(3), 379-390.


Swarzenski, P.W. (1997) Non-conservative behavior of select naturally-occurring radionuclides and metals in coastal waters. Ph.D. Dissertation, Louisiana State University, pp., 242.

Valiela, G., J. Collins, K. Kremer, M. Lajtha, B. Geist, J. Seely, J. Brawley, and C.H. Sham. (1997) Nitrogen loading from coastal watersheds to receiving estuaries: New method and application. Ecological Applications, 7(2), 358-380.


McKee, B.M., Swarzenski, P.W. and Booth, J.G. (1996) The flux of uranium isotopes from river-dominated shelf sediments. In, International Symposium on the Geochemistry of the Earth’s Surface, IAGG, pp. 85-91.

Moore W.S., D.J. DeMaster, J.M. Smoak, B.A. McKee, P.W. Swarzenski. (1996) Radionuclide tracers of sediment-water interactions on the Amazon shelf. Continental Shelf Research, 16 (5-6), 645-665.

Reich, Christopher D., 1996, Diver-operated manometer: a simple Device for measuring hydraulic head in underwater wells, Journal of Sedimentary Research, volume. 66, no. 5, p. 1032-1034.


Swarzenski, P.W., B.A. McKee , and J.G. Booth. (1995) Uranium geochemistry on the Amazon Shelf: Chemical phase partitioning and cycling across a salinity gradient. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 59, 7-18.


Shinn, E.A., Ronald S. Reese, and Christopher D. Reich, 1994, Fate and Pathways of Injection-Well Effluent in the Florida Keys, USGS Open-File Report 94-276, 116 pp.


Swarzenski, P.W., McKee B.A. and Booth J.G. (1993) CTD observations in Framvaren Fjord, Norway. Louisiana Universities Marine Consortium Technical Report. pp. 121.


Swarzenski, P.W. (1992) Uranium geochemistry on the Amazon shelf: evidence for removal via colloidal aggregation. M.S. Thesis, Louisiana State University, pp. 72


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