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Tsunamis and Earthquakes

The December 26, 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami: Initial Findings on Tsunami Sand Deposits, Damage, and Inundation in Sri Lanka

Survey Site Locations and Photos

Mankerni

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Photo in Mankerni
Erosion exposed roots of palm trees near the coast. Debris in foreground was transported by the return flow of the tsunami.
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Photo in Mankerni
Tsunami erosion caused up to 20 m of coastal retreat at Mankerni. The beach is recovering, indicated by the new berm being formed by wind-geneated waves and tides (right of the photograph).
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Photo in Mankerni
Debris on the beach at Mankerni transported by the return flow of the tsunami. The debris is being buried by a new beach berm that formed after the tsunami.
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Photo in Mankerni
Tsunami deposit approximately 140 m from the shoreline. The deposit is between 0.5 and 1.5 cm thick. Note the root sticking out of the pre-tsunami soil.
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Photo in Mankerni
Eyewitnesses to December 26, 2004 tsunami standing on remains of house where they were when they first realized a tsunami was coming.
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Photo in Mankerni
Tsunami deposit approximately 105 m from the shoreline. The deposit is between 2 and 3.5 cm thick. Note the small roots sticking out of the pre-tsunami soil.
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Photo in Mankerni
Tsunami deposit approximately 70 m inland from the shoreline. The deposit is approximately 11 cm thick and composed of multiple layers. The pre-tsunami soil is the darker layer in the bottom part of the photograph.
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Photo in Mankerni
Erosion of grassy area approximately 40 m inland at Mankerni. Tsunami sand deposits were 10 cm thick 20 m inland of where this photograph was taken. The transition from erosion to deposition was at about 50 m inland.
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Photo in Mankerni
View looking inland at Mankerni, approximately 75 m from the shoreline. Debris covers a tsunami deposit on the ground. A fishing net and gouge marks on the tree in the center of the photograph indicate the water depth of the tsunami was more than 2.5 m at this location.
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Photo in Mankerni
Gouge marks in tree formed by debris carried by the tsunami indicate tsunami height of greater than 2 m at about 150 m from the shoreline at Mankerni.
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Photo in Mankerni
The tsunami removed houses about 75 m inland at Mankerni—all that is left is their foundations. Note the boats transported inland by the tsunami. The hole in the lower right portion of the photograph was made by the ITST when it examined tsunami sand deposits.
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Photo in Mankerni
Ponded water from the tsunami at approximately 150 m from the shoreline. Note the foundation in the background that no longer has a house on it.
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http://walrus.wr.usgs.gov/tsunami/srilanka05/mankerniloc.html
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last modified 14 February 2005 (lzt)